Wine production

As befitting one of the oldest examples of biotechnology, there is no single method of winemaking. The production method used depends on the type and style of wine intended. Nevertheless, some stages are, to varying degrees, (White wine) (Red and ros wines) Maceration Fermentation and maceration Fermentation (Completion of fermentation) Maturation and natural clarification Figure 10.1 Flow diagram of winemaking. (From Jackson 2000, reproduced with permission of Academic Press.) involved in the...

Helicobacter pylori

The micro-organism Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastritis, upper abdominal pain, and gastric and duodenal ulceration. In patients with H. Pylori-associated gastritis, treatment of the infection will ease the symptoms and help heal the inflamed stomach. Chronic gastritis or gastric ulceration puts patients at increased risk of developing cancer of the stomach. Infection with H. pylori can occur during childhood where it can remit spontaneously or require treatment. Due to various...

Alcohol and allcause mortality

Perhaps the most reliable information on the effects of alcohol came from studies on mortality. For all-cause mortality, virtually all prospective studies have found a U-shaped or J-shaped association with alcohol consumption (Marmot 1984 Marmot and Brunner 1991 Royal College of Physicians None < 1 day 1 day 2-3 day 4+ day Figure 5.1 Alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality in US men and women (based on Thun et al. 1997). 1995 Rimm et al. 1996 Corrao et al. 2000). In general, moderate...

The history of wine

The history of wine and winemaking is as old as civilization itself. Stories abound about how wine was first discovered, and one of the more delightful tells of a mythical Persian king called Jamsheed. At his court, grapes were kept in jars for eating out of season. One jar was discarded because the juice had lost its sweetness and the grapes were deemed to be poisonous. A damsel from the king's hareem was suffering from nervous headaches and tried to take her life with the so-called poison....

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

Definitions vary, but many, including this author, use the term 'cardiomyo-pathy' (CM) to include heart muscle diseases independent of the valves, coronary arteries, pericardium and congenital malformations. There are multiple known causes of cardiomyopathies, but a large proportion of cases are idiopathic, with genetic and viral factors suspected. Sustained heavy alcohol drinking is believed (Kasper et al. 1994) to be one of the causes of dilated cardiomyopathy, a type of cardiomyopathy...

Postmedieval Europe

After the Middle Ages, wine was prescribed constantly 'the astringent red wines for diarrhoea, the white wines as diuretics, port in acute fevers and for anaemia, claret and burgundy for anorexia, champagne for nausea and catarrhal conditions and port, sherry and madeira in convalescence' (Burke 1984, p. 200). Theriacs, first compounded by the Greeks Nicander and Mithradates, started to be questioned as medicinal potage or fraudulent mixtures of poly-pharmacy that had no scientific basis. When...

Archaeology and the origins of wine production

Winemaking is essentially a natural process whereby the juice of ripe grapes comes into contact with the natural yeast present in the bloom on grape skins. One has only to observe the behaviour of birds in a vineyard when feasting on overripe grapes to see that the fermentation process occurs in nature without human intervention. It is, however, facilitated by the storage of gathered grapes, or their juice, in a waterproof container that retains the juice during fermentation and can later be...

Choice

The world of wine has grown enormously in the past 20 years, and its international face and accompanying tastes have changed beyond recognition. Twenty years ago France held sway. It produced some of the world's finest wines, and today, without question, still makes wine that winemakers from the New World use as a yardstick and seek to emulate, be it champagne, claret or white Burgundy. The other main European contributions to the world's wine scene have come from Germany, with elegant...

Yeast recycling and immobilization

Most winemaking involves separate lots of grape juice fermented to dryness. This is known as batch fermentation. In contrast, most industrial fermentations are continuous fermentations, where nutrients are added at a relatively constant rate once the desired metabolic state of the colony has been reached. The ferment volume remains stable by removing liquid at the same rate that nutrient solution is added. Such fermentations can remain operational for weeks or months. Unfortunately, the...

Conclusion

Thus, by the end of the nineteenth century, wine was established as a medicine in continental Europe and Australia, although the Temperance Movement had eroded its position in the UK and the USA. Its many medicinal uses over the ages are summarized in Table 2.2, and the chronology of wine as a medicine is shown in Table 2.3. Since then, the scientific evidence on wine as a medicine has multiplied enormously, especially during the past decade. The medicinally active ingredients have been mostly...

Ancient Greece

The vine then spread north to Greece. By about 2000 bc Dionysus became the Greek god of wine. The Greeks adopted wine as part of their daily nutritional needs along with bread and meat, believing it strengthened them as is amply described throughout Homer's Odyssey and Iliad, where wine was not only the medicine most frequently mentioned but characters such as Achilles and Ulysses recognized its ability to sustain the body. Normally, as a medicinal remedy, wine had been prescribed diluted three...

Other microbial influences

Bacteria are often viewed, validly, as sources of serious spoilage. However, they also play beneficial roles in wine production. The most obvious example is malolactic fermentation. Nevertheless, bacteria play additional, if more indirect, roles in wine production. These include aspects such as the biological control of pests and disease, and possibly in the seasoning of oak. Microbes are increasingly being used in biological pest control. For example, Bacillus thuringiensis has been used...