Central Nervous System

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The Peripheral Neuropathy Solution

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3 Primary vesicles

Forebrain - Midbrain Hindbrain,

Spinal cord

5 Primary vesicles

Telencephalon

Diencephalon Mesencephalon

Myelencephalon

Spinal cord

Clinical Correlate

Spinal cord

Remnants of Rathke pouch form cranio pharyngiomas that compress optic chiasm.

Adult Derivatives CNS Ventricles

Telencephalon

Cerebral hemispheres

Lateral ventricle

Diencephalon

Thalamus, pineal gland, neurohypophysis, hypothalamus, and the eye

Third ventricle

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

Cerebral aqueduct

Metencephalon

Pons and cerebellum

Fourth ventricle

Myelencephalon

Medulla

Figure IV-2-1. Third Week: DerlvHives of the Brain Vesicles

Clinical Correlate

Axonal polyneuropathies produce distal "glove and stocking" weakness or sensory deficits, and are related to axonal transport failure. Diabetes mellitus patients present with sensory neuropathies.

5 Primary vesicles Telencephalon

3 Primary vesicles /

Midbrain Hind brain

A-. Diencephalon

Forebrain

Midbrain Hind brain

Mesencephalon Metencephalon --Spinal cord Myelencephalon

A-. Diencephalon

Forebrain

Mesencephalon Metencephalon --Spinal cord Myelencephalon

Adult Derivatives CNS Ventricles

Cerebral hemispheres

Thalamus

Midbrain

Pons and cerebellum

Medulla

Adult Derivatives CNS Ventricles

Cerebral hemispheres

Thalamus

Midbrain

Pons and cerebellum

Medulla

Spinal cord

Lateral ventricle

Third ventricle

Cerebral aqueduct

Fourth ventricle

The roots of 31 spinal nerves enter or exit segmentally from the spinal cord.

The anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) is an outgrowth of oral ectoderm (Rathke pouch) and is not derived from the CNS.

Clinical Correlate

Axons utilize anterograde and retrograde axonal transport to move subcellular elements toward or away from the axon terminal. Anterograde transport utilizes microtubules, is mediated by kinesin, and moves vesicles and protein to the axon terminal. Retrograde axonal transport also uses microtubules, is mediated by dynein, and transports lysosomes and recycled membrane. Exogenous substances such as herpesvirus, polio virus, and tetanus toxin affect neuron cell bodies as a result of retrograde axonal transport.

Soma

Figure IV-2-3. The Neuron

Dendrites

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Myelin Vesicles sheath Axon 0f transmitter

Soma

Figure IV-2-3. The Neuron

Myelin

Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells

(permit regeneration of PNS axons)

Myelin production i i

Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells

(permit regeneration of PNS axons)

Dendrites

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Myelin Vesicles sheath Axon 0f transmitter j-

Dura and arachnoid a defect in the vertebral arches; asymptomatic Subarachnoid space

Spinat cord

Vertebral body

B. Spina bifida with meningocele: occurs when the meninges project through the vertebral defect; elevated alpha-feto protein levels

C. Spina bifida with meningmyelocele:

occurs when the meninges and spinal corcf project through the vertebral defect; elevated alpha-feto protein levels

C. Spina bifida with myeloschisis: results in an open neural tube that lies on the surface of the back; most severe variation; elevated alpha-feto protein levels

Figure IV-2-4. Malformations of the Vertebral Column or Spinal Cord

Vertebral body

Vertebral arch Muscle

"4PUli- i in medical 317

Olfactory bulb

Optic chiasm

Olfactory tract

Pituitary

Optic nerve (I

Ocu omotor nerve (III)

Trochlear nerve (IV)

Trigeminal nerve (V)

Lumbar Myeloschisis

Mammillary body

Crus cerebri

Abducens nerve (VI)

Facia nerve (VII)

Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

Vagus nerve (X)

Accessory nerve (XI)

Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

Cervical spinal nerves

Figure IV-2-6. Brain: Inferior View

Cingulate

Fornix

Corpus gyrus ca osum

Thaamus

Pineal

Superior colliculus

Inferior collicu us

Cerebra aqueduct

peJIucidym

Septum

Hypothalamus

Hypophysis

Midbrain

Pons

Fourth

Medulla ventricle

Figure lv-2-5. Brain: Sagittal Section

Cingulate

Fornix

Corpus gyrus ca osum

Thaamus

Pineal

Superior colliculus

Septum peJIucidym

Inferior collicu us

Hypothalamus

Hypophysis

Midbrain

Cerebra

Pons aqueduct

Fourth

Medulla ventricle

Figure lv-2-5. Brain: Sagittal Section

Olfactory bulb

Optic chiasm

Olfactory tract

Pituitary

Optic nerve (I

Mammillary body

Ocu omotor nerve (III)

Crus cerebri

Trochlear nerve (IV)

Abducens nerve (VI)

Facia

Trigeminal nerve (VII)

Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)

Vagus nerve (X)

Accessory nerve (XI)

Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

Cervical spinal nerves

Figure IV-2-6. Brain: Inferior View

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