Frontal Lobe

A large part of the frontal cortex rostral to the central sulcus is related to the control of movements, primarily on the opposite side of the body. These areas include primary motor cortex (Brodmann area 4), premotor cortex (area 6), the frontal eye field (area 8), and the motor speech areas of Broca (area 44 and 45). Traditionally, area 4 is considered the primary motor cortex. It is in the precentral gyrus, immediately anterior to the central sulcus, and contains an orderly skeletal motor map of the contralateral side of the body (Figure IV-10-10).

Central sulcus (Rolando)

Primary motor cortex

Premotor cortex (area 6)

Primary visual cortex cortex

Figure 1V-10-9. Cerebral Cortex: Functional Areas

Broca area (areas 44 & 45)

Lateral sulcus (Sylvius)

Primary auditory cortex (areas 41 & 42)

Visual association cortex

Voluntary contralateral horizontal gaze

Frontal eye field 8)

Primary visual cortex

Broca area (areas 44 & 45)

Wernicke area (area 22 and sometimes 39 & 40)

cortex

Lateral sulcus (Sylvius)

Primary auditory cortex (areas 41 & 42)

Central sulcus (Rolando)

Primary somatosensory cortex (areas ¿A3)

Somatosensory association

Primary motor cortex

Premotor cortex (area 6)

Figure IV-10-10.The Motor Homunculus in Precentral Gyrus (Area 4) Frontal Lobe

The muscles of the head are represented most ventrally closest to the lateral fissure, then, proceeding dorsally, are the regions for the neck, upper limb, and trunk on the lateral aspect of the hemisphere. On the medial aspect of the hemisphere is the motor representation for the pelvis and lower limb.

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