Knee Joint

ANKLE JOINT

Figure 111-5-6. Structures of the Ankle

: There are three anklebone joints: the talocrural joint, the subtalar joint, and the transverse tarsal joint.

The talocrural joint is formed by the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the talus. The movements at this joint are dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. The medial collateral (deltoid) ligament and the lateral collateral ligament prevent abduction and adduction, respectively. These are the ligaments commonly sprained in eversion and inversion ankle injuries, respectively. Ankle injuries occur mostly when the ankle is plantar flexed.

The subtalar joint is a compound joint formed by the talocalcaneal joint and the talocalcaneal part of the talocalcaneonavicular joint. Inversion and eversion are permitted at this joint

The transverse tarsal joint is a compound joint formed by the talocalcaneonavicular joint and the calcaneocuboid joint. Inversion and eversion are also permitted at this joint

Copyright 2000 Gold Standard Multimedia, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 111-5-7. Lower Extremities: Anteroposterior View of Ankle

Copyright 2000 Gold Standard Multimedia, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 111-5-7. Lower Extremities: Anteroposterior View of Ankle

Sesamoid Bones

1st Metatarsal

Medial Cuneiform

Copyright 2000 Gold Standard Multimedia, Inc. All rights reserved.

Metatarsal

Cuboid

Sesamoid Bones

1st Metatarsal

Medial Cuneiform

Copyright 2000 Gold Standard Multimedia, Inc. All rights reserved.

Metatarsal

Cuboid

Figure III-5-8. Lower Extremities: Anteroposterior View of Foot

Talus Navicular

Talus Navicular

Calcaneus

Figure 111-5-9. Lower Extremities: Lateral Foot

Calcaneus

Figure 111-5-9. Lower Extremities: Lateral Foot

Chapter Summary

The lumbosacral plexus is formed by the ventral rami of spinal nerves L1-S4, which provide the major motor and sensory innervation for the lower limb. The primary named neives are the femoral, obturator, tibial, and common peroneal (superficial and deep) nerves. The nerves supply the major muscular compartments of the lower limb (Table 111-5-1). The major nerve lesions of the upper limb indude Trendelenburg gait (superficial gluteal nerve), difficulty standing or climbing (inferior gluteal nerve), loss of knee extension (femoral nerve), loss of hip adduction (obturator nerve), loss of knee flexion and plantar flexion (tibial nerve), foot drop (common or deep peroneal nerves), loss of eversion (common or superficial peroneal nerves), and loss of inversion (deep peroneal and tibial nerves).

The sensory supply from most of the dorsal surface of the foot is provided by the superficial peroneal nerve, except between the great and second toes, which is supplied by the deep peroneal nerve. On the sole of the foot, sensory supply is provided by the medial plantar nerve from the medial toes and the lateral plantar nerve from the lateral toes.

Blood supply to the lower limb is mostly derived from the femoral artery, a continuation of the external iliac artery. The named arterial branches to the limb include the obturator, femoral, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries, and the plantar arterial arch. Their branches and distributions are given on Figure 111-5-3.

The articulation of the knee joint is formed by the condyles of the femur and tibia. This joint is strengthened by the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, and the medial and lateral menisci.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

The Prevention and Treatment of Headaches

Are Constant Headaches Making Your Life Stressful? Discover Proven Methods For Eliminating Even The Most Powerful Of Headaches, It’s Easier Than You Think… Stop Chronic Migraine Pain and Tension Headaches From Destroying Your Life… Proven steps anyone can take to overcome even the worst chronic head pain…

Get My Free Audio Book


Post a comment