Left atrium

The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins.

• There are four openings: the upper right and left and the lower right and left pulmonary veins.

Bicuspid Valve

The left AV orifice is guarded by the mitral (bicuspid) valve; it allows oxygenated blood to pass from the left atrium to the left ventricle.

Left Ventricle

Blood enters from the left atrium through the mitral valve and is pumped out to the aorta through the aortic valve.

Trabeculae Carneae

The trabeculae carneae, or ridges of myocardium in the ventricular wall, are normally three times thicker than those of the right ventricle.

Papillary Muscles

The papillary muscles, usually two large ones, are attached by the chordae tendineae to the cusps of the bicuspid valve.

Aortic Vestibule

The aortic vestibule leads to the aortic semilunar valve and ascending aorta; the right and left coronary arteries originate from the right and left aortic sinuses at the root of the ascending aorta.

Figure 111-2-16. Projection of Heart Valve Sounds on Anterior Chest Wall

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