Medical

Central vein

Hepatocyte

Inlet venule

Bile duct

Portal vein

Hepatic artery

Figure 1-7-4. Organization of a Liver Lobule

Central vein

Hepatocyte

Inlet venule

Bile duct

Bife canaliculi

Sinusoid ethmoidal cell

Sinusoid

Portal vein

Hepatic artery

Figure 1-7-4. Organization of a Liver Lobule

Space or Disse Sinusoid Nucleolus

Space or Disse Sinusoid Nucleolus

Bile Canaliculus

KAPLAIT-.

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Image copyright 1984 Lippincott Williams & Wllkins. Used with permission

BC = Bile canaliculus D = Perisinusoidal spaces of Disse R = Red blood cells in a sinusoid

Image copyright 1984 Lippincott Williams & Wllkins. Used with permission

Figure 1-7-6. Scanning Electron Micrograph of Hepatic Plates and Sinusoids in the Liver

62 medical

Chapter Summary

The gastrointestinal system includes the digestive trad and its associated giands. The regional comparisons of the digestive tract are given in Table 1-7-1.

The associated glands are salivary, pancreas, liver, and the gall bladder. The salivary glands are compared in Table 1-7-2.

The pancreas has an exocrine portion and an endocrine portion. The exocrine portion is composed of acini and duct cells. Acini secrete er»2ymes that cleave proteins, Qrbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Duct cells secrete water, electrolytes, and bicarbonate.

The liver is the largest gland in the body. The parenchyma is made up of hepatocytes arranged in cords within lobules. Hepatocytes produce proteins, secrete bile, store lipids and carbohydrates, and convert lipids and amino acids into glucose. They detoxify drugs by oxidation, methylation, or conjugation, and they are capable of regeneration, Liver sinusoids, found between hepatic cords, are lined with endothelial cells and scattered Kupffer cells, which phagocytose red blood cells.

The biliary system is composed of bile caliculi, hepatic ducts, the cystic duct, and the common bile duct The gall bladder is lined by simple tall columnar cells and has a glycoprotein surface coat. It concentrates bile by removing water through active transport of sodium and chloride ions (especially the former). Call bladder contraction is mediated via cholecystokinin, a hormone produced by enteroendocrine cells in the mucosa of the small intestine.

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