The costal surface is a large convex area related to the inner surface of the ribs. ,

The mediastinal surface is a concave medial surface: • The left lung has a deep cardiac impression.

■ The mediastinal surface contains the root, or hilus, of the lung.

■ The pulmonary ligament is a double fold of pleura hanging inferior to the root of the lung.

The diaphragmatic surface (base) is related to the convex surface of the diaphragm. It is more concave on the right owing to the presence of the liver.

The apex (cupola) protrudes into the root of the neck. It is crossed by the subclavian artery and vein anteriorly.

The hilus is the point of attachment for the root of the lung. It contains the bronchi, pulmonary and bronchial vessels, lymphatics, and nerves.

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