Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat Diabetes

Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Cirsium pascuarense (H.B.K.) Spreng. Elytropappus rhinocerotis Africa Less Helianthus annuus L. N. America Helianthus tuberosus L. N. America, Inula racemosa Hook f. C. America, India Inula viscosa (Dryand.) Middle East Matricaria aurea Sch. Bip. Middle East Neurolaena lobata R. Br. C. America Psacalium decompositum C. America H.B.K. (Cass)...

Insulinomimetic Agents

The need to inject insulin to bypass digestion of the peptide by gastrointestinal enzymes and increase its bioavailability is a major drawback to its acceptability. The insulin receptor is a cell surface protein, so it is theoretically possible that compounds will be discovered that are absorbed orally and can bind and activate the insulin receptor.71 This might be by binding to the insulin-binding sites on the extracellular domain of the insulin receptor or by activating its intracellular...

Background

The Ebers Papyrus written in approximately 1550 b.c. provides the earliest documentation about the use of plants in the treatment of conditions associated with diabetes (Bailey and Day, 1989). In India, the early Ayurvedic texts such as the Sushruta Samhita and the Charaka Samhita written in the 4th to 5th century b.c. describe the use of about 760 and 500 species of medicinal plants, respectively, including those prescribed for conditions such as glycosuria, polyphagia, and polyuria associated...

Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat

Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Rubus strigosus Michx. Rubus ulmifolius Schott. Sarcopoterium spinosum Middle East Root Spach Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol C. America Leaf, stem Acacia catechu Brandis India, S.E. Asia Stem Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Africa, India, Seed Australia Acacia modesta Wall India Seed Reduces blood glucose (Ivorra et al., 1989) Used to treat diabetes (Lust, 1986) Reduces blood glucose level in blood of alloxan-treated rats (Lemus et al., 1999) Contains...

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Physiological actions of glucagon

Although insulin is the main glucose-lowering hormone, a number of humoral factors may increase blood glucose concentrations, including glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone. Glucagon is a peptide hormone released by a-cells of the pancreas in response to drops in blood glucose concentration. In vivo experiments in dogs have shown that glucagon secretion increases twofold in response to a fall in glucose from 100 mg dl (5.6 mmol l) to 80 mg dl (4.5 mmol l).5 The principal...

Where do we go next

When prioritizing species that need further study, the criteria used by Marles and Farnsworth 1995 can still apply, but more use should be made of taxonomic information about the relationship among plants' families and genera. Molecular data have enabled significant advances to be made in understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among different plant families Chase, 2005 . Species used to treat diabetes can be found distributed throughout the plant kingdom Figure 2.1 . However, some...