Worry And Task Performance

Wells and Matthews (1994) point out that anxiety may have both direct and indirect effects on information-processing, attention, and performance. Direct effects are those that reflect the person's motivated attempts to cope with perceived threats and pressures. The prime example is the bias in selective attention towards threat associated with general anxiety. Worry may generate a feedback process in which bias in selective attention elevates awareness of threat and worry, which in turn...

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Text Revision). New York. Amir, N., Cashman, L. & Foa, E.B. (1997). Strategies of thought control in obsessive compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 775-777. Baker, C.A. & Morrison, A.P. (1998). Cognitive processes in auditory hallucinations attributional biases and metacognition. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1199-1208. Barlow, D.H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders (2nd Ed)....

The Phenomenology of Normal and Pathological Worry

Few empirical studies have actually examined the occurrence and phenomenology of worry independent of GAD (Tallis, Davey & Capuzzo, 1994). As a result, much of our empirical understanding regarding what actually occurs when people worry, what they most often worry about, and how frequently they worry has been derived from examinations of nonanxious control groups. As noted by Ruscio (2002), these studies may not provide an accurate representation of the frequency and manifestation of normal...

Comparisons Between Worry And Rumination

The nature of worry and rumination suggests that these processes should overlap with and differ from each other. It is evident that worry and rumination can exist dynamically within the same individual. However, the study of similarities and differences between worry and rumination may offer a number of important opportunities. First, it may allow us to construct systematically a profile of the constituents of persistent negative thinking processes that contribute to specific and or general...

Christine Purdon and Jennifer Harrington Worry In Psychopathology

Historically, worry has been viewed as simply a symptom, or side-effect of anxiety and not an especially interesting topic for study on its own. For example, O'Neill (1985) argued that worry will extinguish through the same mechanisms as anxiety (e.g., flooding), and so does not need to be identified or treated as a separate construct. Borkovec (1985) disagreed, arguing that worry is the cognitive component of anxiety and its relationship to the physiological and behavioral components of...

Julie Loebach Wetherell Prevalence

Approximately 15 of the elderly are self-described worriers (Wisocki, 1994). In spite of the fact that many serious life problems, such as medical illness, functional limitations, and cognitive impairment, are more common among older adults than among younger adults, research indicates that older adults worry less, on average, than younger adults do (Wisocki, 1994). For example, comparisons of undergraduates and older community volunteers typically find that older adults score lower on...

Definitions and Characteristics of Rumination

Rumination is a relatively common response to negative moods (Rippere, 1977) and a salient cognitive feature of dysphoria and DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) major depressive disorder. Although rumination may be symptomatic of dysphoria or clinical depression, it may also be perceived as serving a function. Research has demonstrated that the content of rumination is experienced in both verbal and imaginal form and it is similar in depressed and non-depressed individuals...

The Content of Worry The Worry Domains Questionnaire Tallis Davey Bond 1992

Within the literature, attention has been given to the content features of worry. The rationale for considering clusters of worry content types was driven by the theoretical view that there exist semantically cohesive domains of worry-related material stored in memory (Eysenck, 1984). This culminated in production of the WDQ (Tallis, Eysenck & Mathews, 1992), the most widely used content-based measure of worry. There is also a shortened version of the WDQ, which has 10 rather than 25 items...

Why Do People Worry And Ruminate

Metacognitive Therapy Type Worry

In an earlier section of this chapter, the numerous negative consequences associated with worry and rumination were reviewed. Despite these consequences, it is puzzling to understand why people choose to engage in worry and rumination when stressors are encountered. Knowledge of the factors implicated in proneness to worry and rumination may contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the frequency and severity of worry and anxiety symptoms as well as rumination and depressive...

Theories of Chronic and Pathological Worry

Chapter 11 The Metacognitive Model of Worry and Generalised Anxiety Disorder ____ 179 Chapter 12 A Cognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder The Role of Intolerance of Uncertainty 201 Chapter 13 A Mood-As-Input Account of Perseverative Worrying 217 Chapter 14 The Cognitive Avoidance Theory of Worry 239 Nicholas J. Sibrava and T.D. Borkovec Chapter 15 Metacognitive Therapy for Worry and Generalised Anxiety Disorder ____ 259 Chapter 16 Applied Relaxation and Cognitive Therapy for...

PSWQ Cut Points For Differentiating Various Groups

Recent studies have enhanced the utility of the PSWQ by testing for optimal cut-scores to screen for GAD caseness. Several studies have applied receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine PSWQ scores that optimize sensitivity likelihood of identifying true positives from all persons with positive diagnosis according to the questionnaire and specificity likelihood of identifying true negatives from all persons without diagnosis on the measure vis-a-vis clinician diagnosis or...

PSWQ Scores in Relation to Demographic Variables

Consideration of various uses for the PSWQ additionally requires taking account of whether scores remain stable across demographic groups. With regard to gender, mixed results have surfaced scores sometimes differ little between males and females, as shown in community samples varying in age Gillis et al., 1995 van Rijsoort et al., 1999 , mixed-age clinical samples e.g., Brown et al., 1991 , and in older adult GAD patient groups e.g., Stanley, Novy, Bourland, Beck amp Averill, 2001 ....

Metaworry

A further endeavor has been to assess process characteristics of worry. Perhaps most noteworthy have been attempts to elucidate meta-level beliefs about worry. In his meta-cognitive model of worry in GAD, Wells 1995, 1997 suggests that positive and negative beliefs about worry give rise to Type 1 worry worry about external events and non-cognitive internal events and also to the more pathological Type 2 worry or worry about worry see Chapter 11 . Assessing such dimensions is of interest to...

Assessment

Several measures of worry content, frequency, and severity have been validated with older adult samples. One in particular, the Worry Scale WS , was developed specifically for older adults Wisocki, Handen amp Morse, 1986 . The initial version of the WS was a 35-item questionnaire assessing frequency of worry across three domains finances, health, and social conditions. The scale has adequate internal consistency and convergent validity in normal older adults and in GAD patients. A revised and...

Etiology Of Worry States A Cognitive Perspective

Next, we consider how the self-referent knowledge that supports dispositional worry traits is translated into states of worry. Interactionist theories of personality see Matthews et al., 2003 imply that worry traits relate to various biases in the content and organization of self-knowledge, as represented in LTM. These memory structures remain latent until activated, for example, by an external threat stimulus e.g., Moretti amp Higgins, 1999 . The worry state ensues when the activation of...

The Sref Model Of Worry

We conclude with a brief overview of an integrated cognitive model of attention and emotional distress that accommodates many of the empirical findings previously discussed. The S-REF model Matthews amp Wells, 2000 Wells amp Matthews, 1994 begins with a three-level cognitive architecture comprising 1 stable declarative and procedural self-knowledge, 2 an executive system implementing controlled processing of self-referent information, including appraisal and coping processes, and 3 a set of...

Helen M Startup and Thane M Erickson

Since publication of an earlier review cf. Molina amp Borkovec, 1994 , the quantity and quality of worry-related research has flourished. Research has sought to elucidate both content and process characteristics of the phenomenon, to consider the mechanisms that transform general worry into clinical worry, and to differentiate it from related constructs such as ruminative thought and obsessive thought Davey, Tallis amp Bond, 1994 Startup amp Davey, 2001,2003 Turner, Beidel amp Stanley, 1992...