Ayurveda the Science of Life

Modern Ayurveda

This easy program presents a great deal of information packed in less than 8 hours of knowledge that was gathered by one of the world's most recognized people on spirituality andAyurveda. Cate Stillman dedicates 8 hours of deep knowledge about spirituality and enlightenment that will greatly enhance your life in many ways. You will experience a lot of joy in life and fulfillment, as well as getting rid of the insecurities and frustrations that you might be facing in today's world. It will save you the trouble of having to spend years and years in the schoolsof chakras and energy in very little time that will cover all you need, you will get to know your body's rhythms and how to fix them, how to balance your energy, the ways of healing, yoga practices, ways of eating and even practices you should be doing every day that will correct your body's circadian rhythms for the day. That way, you will become the master of your own body and mind, you will finally achieve satisfaction and fulfillment. You can get all the three tracks and the free mat to practice instantly once you make a successful purchase, that way, you will be able to access the information that you need in no time. Read more...

Modern Ayurveda Summary


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Herbal Medicine to Be Tested

This should be guided by ethnobotanical remedy has been traditionally used according to acredibleinformant,withanecdotal evidenceof safety and efficacy, there should be no need for laboratory studies before initial observational studies (see Chapter 18). The traditional health practitioner's observations on safety in pregnant women and children should be taken into consideration when deciding whether to exclude these groups. This is in line with WHO guidelines for the appropriate use of herbal medicines (WHO, 1998). The observation of patients who choose to take these remedies can serve as an initial screening to determine whether further laboratory and clinical studies would be warranted. The following information about the medicine must be recorded Any place where traditional herbal remedies are used for the treatment of malaria should be considered as a potential study site for initial observations. The following characteristics are necessary

Uses Of Seethamsurasa Ayurvedic Medicine

B Cured afebrile, symptoms completely resolved improved partial resolution of symptoms FC fever clearance. c See Chapter 2 for full description of Totaquina preparations and Chapter 5 for full description of Ayush-64. Sudarsana churna principally Swertia chirata (33 ). Seethamsurasa Ayurvedic preparation containing Azadirachta indica bark and arsenic. dLFTs liver function tests. Ayurvedic preparation containing 54 ingredients,

Malarial Fevers In Ayurveda

The term malaria is not known in Ayurveda, and the etiological explanation in terms of transmission, the presence of plasmodia, and their progress through asexual to sexual stages is not described in Ayurveda. Nevertheless, there is evidence to show that the malaria type of fever was carefully studied and understood. The view taken in this chapter is that an understanding of these approaches, concepts, and principles holds significant potential for the contribution to malaria control and more generally to wider health care strategies (Venugopal and Shankar, 2001). Classical texts of Ayurveda describe what seems to be malaria in the following way Of the eight main types of fever explained in Ayurvedic medical texts, there is a certain category of fever referred to as visama jvara (Caraka samhita, cikitsa sthana, 3 55-75 Susruta samhita, Uttara tantra, 39 51-58 Astanga hrdaya, nidana sthana, 1 56-57). This type of fever is characterised by irregular onset, action, and recurrence. It is...

Chinese Herbal Medicine

There are four main categories of Chinese medicine Chinese herbalism, Chinese food cures, Chinese acupuncture, and Chinese manipulative therapies (Lu 1991). They all rest on the assumption that all things in the animate and inanimate world are dynamic interactions (Porkert and Ullmann 1988 73). In terms of health, Chinese medicine sees the individual as a constellation of energy rather than a physical body which is inhabited by a soul or spirit (Porkert and Ullmann 1988 84). Disease is conceptualized as a disturbance in the harmonious balance of energy that constitutes the human being (Porkert and Ullmann 1988). Among the causes of disease are external factors (wind, cold, summer heat, dampness, dryness, and fire), internal factors (joy, anger, worry, thought, sadness, fear, and shock), and two other causes which are neither internal nor external, fatigue and foods (Lu 1991 31). Herbal decoctions2 in conjunction with other modalities within Chinese medicine, serve to restore harmony...

Herbal Medicine

According to Hoffmann (1988 7), Herbalism is practised holistically. While drugs made from plants have been used in allopathic medicine since its beginnings, herbalists argue that isolating the active ingredient from an herb or plant is reductionist and decreases the healing potential of the remedy. Like homeopathy and naturopathy, herbalism rests on the assumption of self-healing. Hoffman (1988 19) writes The person who is 'ill' is in fact the healer. Aid can be sought from 'experts' but healing comes from within, from truly embracing the life that flows within us. Herbs will aid in this process, but healing is inherent in being alive. The aid in question here is decoctions of various herbs and plants.

Biostatistics And Methods Of Epidemiology

Many changes have been made in this book from the last edition. I hope it will be helpful in providing a good review of public health and preventive medicine. I also hope you will appreciate how applicable this field is in everyday clinical practice (even biostatistics principles ) and what an important impact prevention can have on the health of a population. Many thanks to the medical students, Lucy Chie, Megan Schwarzman, and Natalie Holt, for their thoughtful comments. Preventive Medicine and Public Health PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Ninth Edition, has been designed to provide medical students and physicians with a comprehensive and convenient instrument for self-assessment and review within the field of epidemiology and public health. The 500 questions provided have been designed to parallel the format of the questions contained in Step 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE).

Items 269270

A 30-year-old man has been planning a two-week mountain-climbing trip with three other colleagues. He is in good health. He has been exercising regularly for many months in anticipation of the trip. They will be climbing to a maximum altitude of 8,500 feet. He is planning on leaving the next day.

Vegetarianism And Coronary Heart Disease A Observational Studies

Data on mortality rates in Western vegetarians are available from the early study reported by Phillips et al.76 and from four other cohort studies that included a large proportion of vegetarians. Two of these studies were conducted among Seventh-Day Adventists in California, two among members of the Vegetarian Society and others in Britain, and one among the readers of vegetarian magazines in Germany. A pooled analysis of original data from these five cohort studies was published recently48,52 and included data for 76,000 men and women (of whom 28,000 were vegetarians). Importantly, the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians in each study had a shared interest in healthy living or a similar social religious background. All results were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking, and a random effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates of effect for all studies combined. Further adjustments for body mass index, alcohol consumption, exercise, and education level had little effect on the...

Public Health Potential

Perhaps the most important finding by Mueller et al. (2000) was that local cultivation and preparation of A. annua are feasible in Africa. If effectiveness in nonimmune patients is demonstrated, local cultivation and preparation of A. annua could be considered part of a malaria control strategy, especially in remote areas with poor access to health facilities and poor availability of effective antimalarial drugs. Such remote areas (such as the Brazilian Amazon and remote rural areas of Africa) are particularly problematic for malaria control programs and are often neglected. Herbal medicines may not be as perfect as the exact dosages administered in industrially produced formulations, but may be better than no treatment, or treatment with fake artesunate tablets, which are widespread in Southeast Asia. In an area with significant chloroquine resistance, a herbal infusion of A. annua proved more effective than chloroquine in semi-immune patients (Mueller et al., 2004). If there are no...

Isonatremic Dehydration

A 10-week-old infant is brought to the physician by his mother who states that the child has loose, watery, nonbloody stools that occur 15 times per day. The mother states that the child had been in his usual state of good health until 4 days ago when the symptoms started. The mother states that the child has had tactile fever, nonbilious emesis, and decreased urine output. Weight on admission is 5.3 kg. The vital signs are temperature of 38.4 C, heart rate 142 beats min, and blood pressure 68 42 mm Hg. On physical examination the patient appears irritable. His anterior fontanelle is sunken, and his eyes are slightly sunken. The patient's oropharynx is dry, and the skin turgor is decreased. A urine specific gravity is 1.030. Laboratory tests show moderate dehydration. The Na is 136 mEq L, K 4.9 mEq L, CI 111 mEq L, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 31 mg dl, creatinine 0.8 mg dl, venous pH 7.1, Pco2 22 mm Hg, bicarbonate 10 mEq L.

Review Of Preclinical Data 521 Studies on Animals

Pharmacological and toxicological studies with Ayush-64 were carried out in the laboratories of the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS, 1987). The appropriate authorities for pharmacological and toxicological studies approved the study protocol. The lethal dose 50 (LD50) of Ayush-64 given by oral route to mice and rats was 2 g kg and 4 g kg, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity were carried out on adult male mice of uniform age and body weight between 150 and 200 g.

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

While data indicate that vegetarians may weigh less than other population subsets, it does not necessarily follow that it is their avoidance of meat that is responsible. Vegetarians are also more likely to adopt other healthy life-style habits, such as regular exercise and reduced alcohol consumption, that also impact their lack of obesity. There is some evidence, however, that eating more vegetables and abstaining from meat does play a significant role in their leaner profiles. A study by Kahn and others of 79,000

Alternative Practitioners and Alternative Health Centres

In addition, Hedley (1992) argues that people are able to access alternative therapies through an increasing number of professional services and holistic health centres. Surprisingly, however, only a few informants found alternative therapies through holistic health centres. In Marie's words

Immunomodulatory Properties

The effects of neem on the immune system are complex and have not been fully elucidated some evidence points to an immunostimulant effect, while other evidence suggests it can also act as an anti-inflammatory. The latter may be partly explained by inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase (Van der Nat et al., 1991 Okpanyi and Ezeukwu, 1981 Obaseki et al., 1985). However, Kroes et al. (1993) showed that in a classical Ayurvedic preparation for gout, nimba arishta, the anti-inflammatory activity is almost entirely attributable to ingredients other than neem.

Entrees Into Alternative Health Care

Access health care, be it alternative or allopathic, through a variety of informal networks (Chrisman and Kleinman 1983 Pescosolido 1998) or pathways (Wellman 1995), using lay consultation and professional referral systems. While both are part of the overall health care system, there is an important difference between how people access allopathic, and how they access alternative, forms of care. To illustrate, gaining access to alternative therapies can be easy (Campion 1993 Murray and Shepherd 1993). In fact, it can be easier than trying to access an allopathic specialist without a referral from a general practitioner, or than acquiring a family doctor in many parts of Canada today. Further, while the right to diagnose, prescribe, and dispense is controlled by doctors, pharmacists, and other health care professionals (Torrance 1998), lay people are able to prescribe and administer alternative remedies on their own authority. As Richard tells us, I tried things. You can always go out...

Molecular Medicine Journals

Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine. 1997- . Cambridge, U.K. Cambridge University Press. Electronic. ISSN 14623994. URL http www-ermm.cbcu.cam.ac.uk . Their definition of molecular medicine is the understanding of health and disease at the cellular and molecular level the use of this information to design new approaches to promote health, and prevent, diagnose, cure and treat disease examples include gene therapy, DNA-based testing, vaccine design, the study of disease processes at the molecular level (including the epidemiological study of large numbers of people).

Consensus That Addressing Obesity Is Important

The position that it was reasonable to discuss these interventions with obese patients who had not reached a weight-loss goal through behavioral means alone (20). A large number of organizations have taken positions advocating more awareness of obesity as a health problem, encouraging screening for associated illnesses and a more aggressive approach to counseling patients about diet and physical activity. These include the American Heart Association (21), the American Academy of Pediatrics (22), the American Gastroenterological Association (23), the American College of Preventive Medicine (24), the American Diabetes Association (25), and the Surgeon General (26), to name just a few. It seems clear that addressing weight as a health issue with patients in primary and specialty care has been recognized as a legitimate even mainstream part of clinical care.

The Wider Sociocultural Context

In addressing this issue, authors have explained lay participation in alternative therapies by placing it within the context of larger socio-cultural changes in beliefs about health, illness, and the body, which include the following disillusionment with medical science lay demands for a larger share of control over health and healing and a belief in holistic health care, where health is more than a lack of disease resting on harmony of body, soul, mind, and emotion, and satisfactory relationships with other people and with society as a whole (Crellin et al.1997 Coward 1989 43-4). However, when the frame of analysis is one of the problem-solving actions of individuals, the image which emerges is one of consistency rather than change. To illustrate, the ideological components of the alternative model of health espoused by these people are not new in any objective sense. Rather, as Crellin et al. (1997 44) note, there is an intriguing continuity in many beliefs about health and illness...

Satisfaction with treatment

It is very important to make sure that you understand what your health-care professionals are saying to you and to speak up when you do not understand because they are being either too vague or using medical 'jargon' or technical language with which you are not familiar. Good communication is critical if you are to be satisfied with your care, and a number of studies have linked 'satisfaction with treatment' to a good understanding of what was said during the consultation, which in turn leads to the likelihood of being able to follow your

Considering the costs and benefits of change

If goal setting is to succeed, therefore, the goals need to flow from you and be an expression of what you require to solve a particular problem. The goals need to come from you and be owned by you. This canbe particularly challenging, as people sometimes want to set goals that are far too ambitious to be achievable. In other circumstances people want to set goals that are not compatible with established guidelines or with what the diabetes care team believe is the best course. However, your health-care professionals will ensure that you understand the disadvantages and benefits of your decisions, and will emphasise the likely consequences of your choices. In the end, however, you are responsible for, and in control of, the choices you make about your own diabetes self-care.

Xavier PiSunyer md mph

Obesity and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with a greater health risk for a number of conditions, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coagulation abnormalities, inflammatory markers, and coronary heart disease. Lifestyle changes can delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in patients with obesity and IGT. The risks improve with weight loss and increased physical activity. A decrease of 7 to 10 or more from baseline weight can have a significant effect. This has now been documented in a number of randomized controlled studies. This essay is directed on how the Diabetes Prevention Program approach to lifestyle change can be translated in a meaningful way to routine clinical care practice settings.

Implications For Health Policy

And patient preferences (Fitter and Thomas 1997). For example, Walker and Anderson (1999 1615) argue that Many CAM practitioners emphasize the need for a genuinely collaborative approach to clinical decision making which means that randomization, for instance, preclude s evaluating certain treatment under everyday conditions. Another problem in applying the RCT method to the assessment of these therapies concerns the preference for blinding in RCT designs (Hart 2001). For example, blinding is impossible with therapies such as therapeutic massage or chiropractic treatment where there is physical contact between therapist and client (Fitter and Thomas 1997 Nahin and Straus 2001 Walker and Anderson 1999). Moreover, trials making use of placebos or shams as a control are problematic because within alternative healing paradigms, placebos are catalysts of the bioregulatory mechanisms rather than shams (Birch 1997 Lowenberg 1992 Tonkin 1987 7, emphasis his).6 Finally, RCTs typically select a...

Summary of Outcomes for Adult Diet and Activity Trials

With the exception of the studies by Mhurchu et al. (52) and Woollard et al. (50,51), each study reviewed showed a significant effect favoring the MI group on at least one main outcome. In all three studies in which MI was used to modify fruit and vegetable intake, significant effects were observed. In the four studies in which weight was at least a secondary target outcome, only one, by Woollard et al. (57), found a significant effect. Although Harland and colleagues (53) found a short-term effect of MI on physical activity, significant long-term outcomes in this study and Healthy Body Healthy Spirit (54) were not observed. Effect sizes in positive studies generally were in the small to moderate range, 0.20 to 0.50, as defined by Cohen (68) (see Table 4).

J Special Consideration in Hot Environments Afloat

(1) In certain environments afloat, heat frequently exceeds man's ability to adapt. Therefore, exposure limits for high heat stress areas afloat have been established through use of the PHEL (physiological heat exposure limits), described in detail in Navy Medical Department publication NAVMED P-5010-3, Manual of Naval Preventive Medicine.

Prevention And Control

To that end, in September 2003, the Directing Council of PAHO adopted the initiative to eliminate rubella and CRS by the year 2010. Integrating the elimination of measles with the elimination of rubella will greatly enhance the capacity of countries to sustain progress. In addition, countries are encountering new opportunities to expand the benefits of disease control and elimination activities to other aspects of public health, most importantly in improving health care for women and reducing inequities in health care in the poorest countries.82,83 It is expected that the adoption of similar strategies in countries worldwide will achieve global eradication of measles in the first decade of the twenty-first century.84,85

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

A 2-month-old term infant born without any complications via spontaneous vaginal delivery is brought to the emergency center via ambulance with CPR in progress. According to the mother, the patient was in his usual state of good health until 4 am when she found the patient cyanotic and not breathing. The mother states that at midnight the infant was fed 4 ounces of formula without any difficulty. After the feeding, the child was placed to sleep in a crib. At 4 am the mother returned to check on the infant and found the child unresponsive. She immediately called Emergency Medical Services and began CPR. The child was pronounced dead on arrival to the emergency department.

Diversity of structures active on TRPV1

Malen Nach Zahlen

Like RTX, the natural products anandamide and arachidonyl-dopamine, which have been postulated to be endogenous regulators of TRPV1, fit within the standard pharmacophore model, although with a simplified A-region 21 . In contrast, some other natural products possess markedly divergent structures (Fig. 2). Evodiamine, a component of the pungent herbal medicine Wu-Zhu-Yu, binds TRPV1 competitively, functions as a TRPV1 agonist, and behaves as a typical capsaicin analog in multiple-tissue and whole-animal assays 22, 23 . Its potency is some 3-20-fold less than that of capsaicin. Thapsigargin, a potent inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticu-lum ATPase, inhibited 3H RTX binding with comparable affinity to capsaicin but through a mixed mechanism, and functioned as an antagonist of TRPV1 function 24 . Finally, the pungent dialdehyde sesquiterpenes such as isovelleral interact with TRPV1. However, since they are reactive molecules and affect many cellular processes, it is clear that they...

Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat Diabetes

Antidiabetic activity (Palanichamy et al., 1988) Part of an ayurvedic formula hyponida that has antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity (Babu and Prince, 2004) Reported to have antidiabetic activity but Hussain et al. (2004) showed it did not stimulate insulin secretion

Pediatrics and Neonatology

A 4-year-old boy is brought to the emergency room complaining of left ear pain that awakened him from sleep. The child has no past medical history and has been in good health. During the physical examination, the child is irritable and often tugs at his left ear. His temperature is 101.5 F and he has no lymphadenopathy. The left tympanic membrane is bulging and erythematous. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis

Taking Care Of Baby Teeth

A child's baby teeth are being made before birth while the baby is still inside the mother's womb. During the last months of pregnancy and the first few months after the child is born, the baby teeth take their final form. Pregnant mothers and young children need good food and good health in order to have strong baby teeth. For baby teeth to grow strong, mother and baby must stay healthy.* Help her to understand how important this is. A pregnant mother should

Microbiology Immunology

A 24-year-old woman in her third trimester of pregnancy presents with urinary frequency and burning for the past few days. She denies fever, nausea, vomiting, or chills. She takes no medications besides prenatal vitamins and is generally in good health. Physical examination is remarkable for mild suprapubic tenderness, and a urine dipstick is positive for white blood cells, protein, and a small amount of blood. Culture produces greater than 100,000 colonies of gram-negative bacilli. Which of the following attributes of this uropathogenic organism is most strongly associated with its virulence

Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia

An 85-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery bypass, and active tobacco use presented with a gangrenous right first toe. The patient stated that he had no history of trauma to the area, and complained of rest pain in the foot. The patient had been in otherwise good health since his coronary artery bypass 12 years ago. On physical examination, the patient was in no physical distress. The patient had a well-healed median sternotomy scar. Auscultation of the heart revealed a regular rate without any murmurs. He was obese. Abdominal examination revealed no palpable masses. The patient had bilateral femoral and popliteal pulses but no pedal pulses. The patient had bilateral, well-healed scars from the greater saphenous vein harvest sites. The right gangrenous toe was dry without any evidence of infection.

Scientific Nane Of Seetamsurasa

Role of Ayush-64 in malaria epidemic. J. Res. Ayurveda Siddha, XVIII, 71-76. Panda, P.K. (1998). Clinical study of Caesalpinia crista L. (Lata Karanja) in malaria patients. J. Res. Ayurveda Siddha, 19, 122-127. WHO. (1993). Research Guidelines for Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicines. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila. Willcox, M.L. (1999). A clinical trial of 'AM', a Ugandan herbal remedy for malaria. J. Public Health Med., 21, 318-324.

Discovering Changshan And Overcoming Barriers To Entry

Two things were clear from this dialogue. First of all, Chen Guofu became interested in the problem of malaria because he saw it as an opportunity for Chinese herbal medicine to make a contribution to national medical problems. If he succeeded in finding an effective traditional Chinese drug, his success would demonstrate that, contrary to common wisdom, Chinese medicine could also contribute to solving state medical problems. As Chen Guofu's mission was to look for a substitute for quinine, the success of his project inevitably resulted in translating Chinese drugs into just another therapeutic technique in the Western-style doctors' armamentarium, rather than drawing on the theoretical framework of TCM in understanding and managing febrile conditions, of which malaria is one specific type.

Review Of Clinical Trials 531 Trials by the CCRAS

CCRAS carried out field trials with Ayush-64 for 5 to 6 years in different parts of India. The overall findings were that of the 1442 cases (P. vivax positive), the cure rate was 89.1 in 2337 clinical malaria cases diagnosed by medical experts, the cure rate was 89.04 and in 448 cases of clinical malaria diagnosed by the Ayurvedic experts, the cure rate was 91.96 .

Background And History

Widespread resurgence of malaria in India during the 1970s prompted the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) to develop an Ayurvedic remedy for malaria. CCRAS is an autonomous institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In Ayurvedic literature, malaria fever is known as Vishamajwara (intermittent fever with rigor). The Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia and experience in the treatment of various fevers, including malaria, was the basis for the antimalarial herbal mixture Ayush-64. In 1980 scientists of CCRAS selected four plants used in the treatment of fever, including malaria, and prepared a formulation named Ayush-64. CCRAS further developed the drug in collaboration with 20 laboratories in the country and patented Ayush-64 as a new antimalarial herbal compound. So, it is not really an Ayurvedic treatment for malaria. Rather, it is a phytomed-icine produced by scientists based on ethnobotanical leads. No research has been done on...

Medicinal Plants Conclusion

Clinical observations on traditional remedies are feasible and useful, and this chapter has presented clinical evidence that some herbal remedies are safe and effective against malaria. However, better evidence from randomised clinical trials is necessary before the use of an herbal remedy can be recommended on a large scale.

The Implications Of Alternative Health Beliefs

Research has shown that part of what lay people value about alternative therapies is that they are based on an ideology where health is understood as comprising more than just human biology (Furnham and Smith 1988 Pawluch et al.1994 Schneirov and Geczik 1996). Likewise, amongst the positive aspects attributed to these informants' alternative model of health is its emphasis on a holistic understanding of health and healing. A holistic approach to health care is something that the informants desire and something they feel is woefully lacking in allopathic medicine. However, for the individual who adopts such an alternative model of health, holism has its price. For example, one implication for the individual of the pursuit of this form of holistic health is that participation in alternative therapies can be, as McGuire (1988) points out, incredibly labour intensive. To illustrate, Pam's daughter was diagnosed by their naturopath as having several allergies and sensitivities, many of...

Epidemiological Studies of Vegetarians

Data from the Adventist Health Study (AHS) is of interest in comparing the effects of a vegetarian diet on obesity. The Seventh-Day Adventist Church doctrine promotes a healthy life-style and includes the recommendation of a vegetarian diet for its members. This study collected diet and other life-style characteristics of some 34,000 individuals, following them for several years and recording the incidence of chronic disease and death. Data recorded in 1976 indicated that about 45 of Californian Seventh-Day Adventists were vegetarian, with the remaining 55 consuming flesh food from occasionally (less than once per week) to daily. This fact makes this a valuable study population in which to compare the differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians, since both groups share many socio-demographic and life-style characteristics, differing primarily in diet.

Polypharmacy As A Means To Offset Nausea Induced By D Febrifuga

Of specific interest is the fact that G. glabra is one of the traditional means of treating malaria in Ayurveda, the classical health care system of India (Sharma, 1999). Liquorice is also known to have gastrointestinal effects and is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers (www.herbmed.org). It has been found in purified form to stimulate and accelerate gastric mucus formation and secretion (van Marle et al., 1981). These gastrointestinal effects of liquorice would suggest some effect on nausea. In clinical research in Japan, glycyrrhizin, the aqueous extract of liquorice root, has been shown to prevent hepatotoxic responses to chemicals and is used in treating chronic hepatitis (Shibayama, 1989). It also reduces the side effects, including nausea, resulting from chemotherapy in postoperative breast cancer patients (Akimoto et al., 1986). Liquorice is also known to have synergistic effects with other ingredients of plant-based medicines (Williamson, 2001) and...

Fruits And Vegetables A Population Studies

The World Health Organization has recommended that, for good health, we consume at least 400 grams (14 ozs.) of fruits and vegetables a day.17 The National 5-A-Day for Better Health campaign was designed to increase the consumption of vegetables and fruit to at least five servings a day. When surveyed, only one in 11 Americans actually met this recommended guideline.18 A lack of knowledge about the value of fruit and vegetables possibly explains the low intake. Two out of every three Americans surveyed said they thought that not more than two servings of fruit and vegetables a day were sufficient for good health.19

What Are Alternative Therapies

The people who took part in this research referred to their participation in alternative forms of health care in a variety of ways, including alternative therapy medicine, complementary therapy medicine, holistic health care, and natural healing. However, I have chosen to use variations of alternative therapy, over CAM or complementary therapy medicine, for several reasons. First of all, as is the case with the concept of alternative therapy, there is no consistent meaning given to the terms complementary therapy or complementary medicine. For instance, Fulder and Munro (1985 545) cite a definition where complementary means that both alternative and allopathic therapeutic approaches have separate areas of competence and that complementary therapies are neither alternative nor supplementary to conventional medicine (Fulder and Munro 1985 542). Other researchers define complementary therapy as the concurrent use of both alternative and allopathic forms of health care (Cant and Sharma...

Experiments on formulated diets

In the meantime, research was under way into what constituted a physiologically complete diet. Lunin, a pupil of the Swiss biochemist Bunge, first showed in 1882 that laboratory animals failed to thrive when kept on an artificial diet comprising the then known constituents of food (fat, protein, carbohydrate, mineral salts and water) in purified form. Taking a similar approach of using isolated purified food ingredients, Pekelharing formulated a baked product containing only casein, albumin, rice flour, lard and a mixture of all the salts which ought to be found in food. When this product, plus water to drink, was provided as food for mice, the mice failed to grow and died. When other mice were provided with the same meal, but with milk to drink instead of water, they kept in good health. Pekelharing concluded in 1905 that 'There is an unknown substance in milk, which, even in very small quantities, is of paramount importance to nutrition. If this substance is absent, the organism...

Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction by Dietary Modification

Preventive medicine is currently a topical issue. Cardiovascular disease is a well-known example. The identification of atherosclerosis as one of the causative mechanisms of cardiovascular disease has resulted in important lifestyle modifications in diet, tobacco use, and exercise. This has led to a significant decrease in the incidence of heart disease in many countries. Prostate cancer potentially represents an ideal target for chemoprevention because of its long latency. Although the use of new biological strategies is being examined in the context of primary prevention and progression of prostate cancer, it has been suggested that nutrition may also have a role. However, does the weight of

Is There An Alternative Therapy Type

All of the informants in this study were white. Eighteen identified themselves as Canadians of British or Celtic heritage two were British and one, while born in Poland, grew up in Holland and Kenya. Likewise, national survey research from the US reports that up to 82 percent of those who use alternative therapies are white (Eisenberg et al. 1998). However, this is not to imply that using alternative approaches to health and health care is restricted to whites. For example, the informants who took part in Pawluch et al.'s (1998b) study of people coping with HIV AIDS through the use of complementary therapy came from a diverse range of ethnic and racial backgrounds. Furthermore, the relationship between use of alternative approaches to health and healing and ethnic background is greatly dependent on cultural context (Low 2001b). For instance, Asians who make use of Chinese herbal medicine may well define it as traditional rather than alternative and would thus be under-represented in...

Guidelines for the use of medicine

Note Some health workers and many doctors give medicines when none is needed, often because they think patients expect medicine and will not be satisfied until they get some. Tell your doctor or health worker you only want medicine if it is definitely needed. This will save you money and be safer for your health.

Placental Transport And Metabolism Of Retinol During Mammalian Development

However, some studies have suggested that RBP might be dispensable for retinol placental transfer, as homozygous RBP null mutant mice are viable and fertile (Clagett-Dame and DeLuca, 2002). Accumulation of hepatic retinoids stores is not impaired in RBP_ _ embryo. Indeed, the knockout mice accumulate retinol and retinyl ester in the liver at a higher rate compared with wild-type animals (Quadro et al., 1999). The normal sizes observed for litters from RBP-deficient dams and the usual good health of their pups indicate that the retinol bound to RBP is not the only source for retinoids reaching the embryo. Results demonstrate that retinyl esters in lipoproteins particles can be a significant source for retinoids (present postprandially in maternal blood) and can be used by the fetus to support embryogenesis (Quadro et al., 2005). These data are consistent with several previous works establishing that very low-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins can be taken up by the...

Low Fat Diets Are Best for Preventing Weight Regain

Most successful weight-loss maintainers eat a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet that is low in total calories. Even though there is great controversy in the literature over the best diet composition for maintaining a healthy body weight, the overwhelming majority of the NWCR participants report eating a diet with less than 30 fat and that is high in carbohydrate to keep their weight off. It is important to note that we did not see all NWCR participants eating a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet to lose weight, suggesting that there can be more variety in weight-loss diets than in weight-loss maintenance diets.

Dietary Guidelines

Dietary guidelines are designed to provide advice for healthy individuals regarding diet and related life-style practices to promote healthful eating and reduce the risk of disease.1 Dietary guidelines differ from nutrient standards such as the Reference Dietary Intakes (RDI) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA),2 or food guides such as the Food Guide Pyramid.3,4 Nutrient standards define the reference points for average daily intake of essential nutrients food guides provide a framework for selecting kinds and amounts of foods of different types that together provide a nutritionally adequate diet and dietary guidelines give advice on consumption of types of food or food component related to a public health concern. The guidelines are intended to be population-based recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention. First released in 1980, the Nutrition and Your Health Dietary Guidelines for Americans booklet represented a joint effort by the Departments of Agriculture...

What about the healthcare professionals

Establishing such relationships requires effort and commitment. A great many factors will determine your ability to feel comfortable with your health-care team including your personality, your health-care professionals' personality and philosophy regarding treatment, and more. You will probably look for a series of cues in order to answer important questions that you will have on your mind, such as 'Do they listen to me ', 'Do they seem to care about people ', 'Are they concerned about my agenda and my concerns ', 'Do they appear knowledgeable about diabetes ', 'Will they be able to answer my questions '.

To eat healthily what are you aiming for

The Balance of Good Health (see Figure 2) shows the types and proportion of foods you need to eat to achieve a well-balanced and healthy diet. It is based on the five commonly accepted food groups. It shows that you do not have to give up the foods you most enjoy for the sake of your health. A healthy eating pattern includes the correct balance of foods from the four main food groups every day, plus an allowance for extras from the fats and fatty sugary foods group. All your nutritional needs will be met if you choose foods in these proportions. Remember, however, that everything you eat - snacks as well as meals - counts towards the balance of what you eat. The basic message is The balance of good health The balance of good health

School Activities for Learning About Teeth and Gums

Tooth Decay Activity

Suggest ways for your students to eat good healthy kinds of food. Suggest ways for your students to eat good healthy kinds of food. Good Health. Infection from a bad tooth can spread to other parts of your body. Talk about the many different kinds of food we need to stay healthy. Discuss which teeth we use to chew meat, fish, mango, and other good foods in your area. (For most foods, the answer is both front and back teeth I) A baby who is poorly nourished, however, may not grow his first tooth until later. Do not wait for the first tooth before giving him the extra soft food he needs to grow and stay healthy. Ask the students what other things they saw inside someone else's mouth. This is a good time for students to discover important things about good health practices. Encourage them to learn as much as they can from what they see, and then show them how to use a book like this to answer their own questions, For example, if students see cavities and red bleeding gums, you can start...

Teaching Family and Friends In Your Community

Improving health may require changing some habits and strengthening others. People find their own ways to stay healthy. Many traditions are good, helpful, and worth keeping. But some are not. Repeat the most important message many times. Whenever you teach about staying healthy, remember to emphasize eating good food and keeping teeth clean. Repetition helps people remember.

Suggested preliminary toxicity testing models for herbal antimalarials

A striking change has occurred in the acute lethal toxicity studies in the last decade (Lorke, 1983), and attempts have been made to reform the determination of lethal dose 50 (LD50) values. As a result of progress in animal ethics, some alternative toxicological tests have been developed to minimise the number of animals used (Reader et al., 1989 Bracher et al., 1987). Some acute toxicity tests are designed to determine the LD50. WHO (2000) describes the acute toxicity test, using at least five rodents of each sex and at least two nonrodents, at several dose levels, in order to determine the approximate lethal dose of a herbal medicine. According to the FDA Redbook II, information on LD50 can be used to

Morality and Cost in the Management of Schizophrenia

The style and content ot health organizations is always intormed by ethical principles, although these may not always be clear. Thus in pay-per-service or insurance-based services, the moral imperative is the right ot choice the right ot citizens to spend their money in their own way, choosing perhaps to spend it on health care or insurance. This right cuts across other imperatives, and is rarely implemented tully because good health is seen as a right in most countries.

Implications for work with midlife women

Processes that need to be diagnosed and treated rather than from a stance of observation, coaching, and support. The current generation of mid-life women is the group that revolutionized the practices consistent with what we know about the importance of relationships for women in development and health. Supporting women in adopting behaviors and attitudes that have been associated with greater health and longer life can take place best in the context of a provider-patient relationship, which includes the frequent discussion of psychosocial features of that woman's life experiences. We maybe in the midst of an equally profound change in the content of healthcare in mid life. The ready availability of medical information to the public on the Internet only reinforces this transformation. As literature grows, revealing the significance of the patient-centered approach to health outcomes,58,59 providers have a mandate to employ patterns of communication that are empowering and elicit the...

How do I know which herbal cures are actually useful

There has been a lot of controversy in recent years over herbal cures and medical conditions as a whole. The main reason for this is because there are a lot of charlatans out there, people who promise miracle cures but don't deliver anything of substance. It's therefore very important in the case of doctors or psychologists that you know these people are registered. There are societies that exist that can tell you whether these people are registered practitioners of medicine and pharmacology. You should always check which your GP before taking any herbal medicines. This is imperative. These can often interfere with other medications you are taking and, instead of having a positive effect, will actually have a negative effect on you. Be aware of what you read in the back of magazines. If there was a genuine cure for these conditions be assured too that, your consultant or GP would be aware of it. Be assured too that, if the right tests and trials had been done, they would know about it.

Participatory Research

The Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) is a nongovernmental organisation in Bangalore, India, dedicated to revitalising traditional medical knowledge and the conservation of medicinal resources. For finding out best solutions to public health problems, FRLHT has been carrying out a program called documentation and participatory rapid assessment of local health practices followed by clinical trials. The rapid assessment is carried out through community-level workshops. In these workshops the knowledgeable households, village healers, and physicians from various systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and biomed-icine meet together and review selected local health practice. The medical systems represented use clinical data from their own classical texts in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and pharmacology to back up their comments. This rapid assessment method is applied to promote effective local remedies. The workshop provides a platform for the...

Example Of Observational Studies Conducted On

Thirty-four cohort studies on traditional antimalarials have been retrieved from a comprehensive literature search (see Chapter 19). Five of them examined Ayurvedic preparations used in India. Others investigated traditional remedies in Uganda, Tanzania, and Madagascar. The Chinese herb Artemisia annua, the source of artemisinin and its derivatives, was studied in the Democratic Republic of Congo. These studies provide indications not only on therapeutic and secondary effects but also on the potential to reverse resistance to chloroquine and the feasibility of plant cultivation and preparation.

Toxicological Evaluation

This is a highly technical, as well as a highly contentious, area. There is a common belief that remedies of natural origin are harmless and carry no risk to the consumer, whereas man-made chemicals carry an inherent risk and require stringent testing. Nothing could be farther from the truth, since many phytochemicals are potently pharmacologically active. The WHO (1998) has published guidelines on the appropriate use of herbal medicines that have the potential to be applied to the use of plant-based repellents. The report highlights the need for mechanisms to ensure that these products are safe and effective, yet remain broadly accessible. This is vital, since plant-based repellents may provide the only economically viable form of personal protection for the poorest rural communities in areas such as Southeast Asia, the Amazon Basin, and southwestern Pacific, where there is a real risk of malaria infection from early-biting vector mosquitoes. The WHO (2000) has also published...

Problems In The Current Traditional Medicine Research In Malaria

It would seem evident from the chapters in this book that different cultural regions of the world have had their own understanding of malarial fevers and have equipped themselves to combat the disease in localised ways. This is clearly evidenced by the fact that the two globally most important antimalarial drugs have had their origin in traditional medical knowledge drawn from two far corners of the world, Peru (see Chapter 2) and China (see Chapter 3). However, when it comes to searching for further solutions for combating the disease, the contemporary relevance of the traditional knowledge is often overlooked. It is clear from the textual descriptions in Ayurveda that malaria has been described in detail and has been managed by traditional medicine healers in India in the past. Due to various reasons, like lack of political patronage for traditional medicine, overdependency on the biomedical drugs, lack of interest among young people to continue the tradition, and depletion of...

Antidepressants in Broader Context

Besides antidepressants, anticonvulsants 12 , herbal remedies (Hypericum perforatum 13 ), acupuncture, exercise, sleep deprivation, and other complementary therapies have also been successfully used in the treatment of depression, although the evidence of efficacy is rather scarce 14 . Despite the ''monoaminergic dogma,'' there are still other pharmacological approaches to target depression. Dysregulation of the

Finding Out What Progress Has Been Made Evaluation

From time to time in your health work, it helps to take a careful look at what and how much you and your people have succeeded in doing. What changes, if any, have been made to improve health and well-being in your community To evaluate the results of your health activities it helps to count and measure certain things before, during, and after. But remember The most important part of your health work cannot be measured. It has to do with the way you and other people relate to each other with people learning and working together with the growth of kindness, responsibility, sharing, and hope. It depends on the growing strength and unity of the people to stand up for their basic rights. You cannot measure these things. But weigh them well when you consider what changes have been made.

Alternative Healing Techniques

Self-healing also means using the power of the mind for healing. For instance, Lorraine said, If you can get into this thinking pattern there's nothing that you can't heal in your own body, and Betty told me, The human mind is a pretty powerful thing and I think even just with our mind alone, I think we can basically heal ourselves with our attitude or our thinking processes. Harnessing the power of the mind over the body to bring about healing can mean anything from general bodily maintenance through pain relief, to destroying tumours and cancerous cells. For instance, Jane visualized a video game character eliminating substances in the body not conducive to good health If I'm not feeling well when I go to bed, you know Pac Man I just visualize it. I turn on my brain and I say 'Okay, send them all out,' and they can chomp up anything in this body that's not good for it. Trudy also used visualization as a means of enabling the mind to engender healing

About the book

Chapter 9 we call our 'How do I ' chapter where we answer some of the most commonly asked questions from patients and their families, from issues concerning coping in specific situations to addressing the use of herbal remedies. A list of the various associations and help groups that exist around the UK, and a summary of the different services they offer, is given in the 'Useful addresses' section at the back of the book.

Aging parents

Care-giving is not a short-term proposition the average duration of care is 4.5 years. Despite the grimness of the statistics, care-givers also describe overwhelming feelings of love, being valued and appreciated, and proud of the work they are doing. Successful care-giving relationships correlate with strong social support and networks, mutuality of support and shared care-giving with partners or spouses, good family communication, role flexibility, higher income, good health on the part of the care-giver, and ongoing community and church spiritual involvement.50,51 The ability to acknowledge vulnerability and request help is key to successful care-giving. Isolation may heighten risks for declining mental and physical health on the part of care-givers. Rural and poor women with less access to resources will be at higher risk than their more resource-rich counterparts.52

Lifelong Ailment

Some people find themselves debilitated to the point of being legally classified as disabled and therefore entitled to Social Security disability benefits and to benefits under private disability insurance, if they have such a policy. But with the host of recently approved, or experimental, medications, the vast majority of individuals who suffer flare-ups return to good health over time.

Legitimate comments

Many of the things people say to you may be legitimate comments with sincere concern for your health, but they may be extremely irritating to you just the same. Other remarks may be made without any consideration for your feelings whatsoever. It doesn't really matter why a comment is inappropriate the important thing is that you learn to cope with some of the comments you hear in a way that is comfortable for you.


Eighteen case reports (Table 19.1) were identified of herbal antimalarials for the treatment of malaria (falciparum in 14 of these cases). There were 17 cohort studies of herbal remedies for the treatment of falciparum malaria (Table 19.2), 12 of remedies for vivax malaria (Table 19.3), and 5 of remedies for malaria of undefined species (Table 19.4). Eight controlled trials were also identified, two for falciparum malaria and six for vivax (Table 19.5). Specific case reports of toxicity from herbal antimalarials have been reviewed in Chapter 18. Of the studies reviewed here, few reported data on side effects of the herbal medicines 3 (17 ) of the case studies, 13 (38 ) of the cohort studies, and 4 (50 ) of the controlled trials did so. In the other studies, it seems that patients were not questioned about adverse effects or new symptoms since starting treatment. Minor side effects can be important. For example, Willcox (1999) found that almost half of the patients taking the herbal...

Burden Of Depression

Patients with major depression, minor depression, and depressive symptoms have greater functional impairment and consume greater health care resources than patients who are not depressed 13-29 . For example, in a comparison of patients with DSM-III-R anxiety or depressive disorders, subthreshold disorders, or no anxiety or depressive disorders, Simon et al 25 found that, after controlling for physician rating and disease severity, patients with anxiety or depression had statistically significantly higher 6-month health care expenditures relative to patients with no anxiety or depression (Figure 6.1).

Series Preface

Global warming and global travel are among the factors resulting in the spread of such infectious diseases as malaria, tuberculosis, heptatitis B, and HIV. All these are not well controlled by the present drug regimes. Antibiotics, too, are failing because of bacterial resistance. Formerly less well known tropical diseases are reaching new shores. A whole range of illnesses, for example cancer, occur worldwide. Advances in molecular biology, including methods of in vitro testing for a required medical activity, give new opportunities to draw judiciously upon the use and research of traditional herbal remedies from around the world. The re-examining of the herbal medicines must be done in a multidisciplinary manner. Since 1997, 20 volumes have been published in the book series Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Industrial Profiles. The series continues and is characterised by a single plant genus per volume. With the same series editor, this new series Traditional Herbal Medicines for...


Over 5000 years ago, the Chinese emperor Shen Nung investigated medicinal plants and confirmed their pharmaceutical properties. As a result, over 11,000 herbal remedies were developed and used in China well before the advent of modern medicine. These include Artemisia annua, the source of artemisinin, which has recently been developed into a new antimalarial drug (see Chapter 3). In India, traditional medicine has also been in use for over 5000 years, and 8000 herbal remedies codified in the Ayurveda are still in clinical use today (see Chapters 5, 12, and 13). Other cultures that also have recorded the use of traditional medicine since antiquity include the Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Europeans, sub-Saharan Africans, and the indigenous peoples of North and South America (Huang et al., 1992).

Review Questions

Vitelline Duct Adults

A 23-year-old female secretary in good health suddenly doubles over with pain in the area of the umbilicus. She feels warm and uneasy and has no appetite. That night the pain seems to have moved to the lower right abdominal region, and she calls her family doctor who then arranges for an ambulance to pick her up and take her to the hospital. Which nerves, perceived in the area of the umbilicus, most likely carried the painful sensations into the CNS


In hypoplasia (figure 2-14), there is a lack of development or a defective development of the enamel of the tooth before its eruption. In deciduous teeth, enamel hypoplasia can be caused by a disturbance in the enamel formation before birth and, for some deciduous teeth, after birth. In permanent teeth, enamel hypoplasia can only be caused by some disturbance after birth since enamel formation of the permanent dentition begins at birth. Enamel prisms are deposited by the enamel organ in a definite pattern to form the crown of the tooth. A local disturbance may interfere with this process and result in defective development. The degree of the defect (hypoplasia) varies from mild, shallow depressions or grooves to extensive grooves or pits arranged in horizontal rows around the crown. These grooves or pits extend into the enamel as far as the dentinoenamel junction. The defect may be a lack of development of all or part of the enamel, leaving exposed dentin. Hypoplastic enamel and...

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Also, when theory is induced from diverse data, the researcher is less likely to impose his her perceptions of reality on the phenomena at hand (Glaser and Strauss 1967 239). Thus the rigour of this study was enhanced through the use of a variety of sources of information in addition to the primary interview data. This information complements the interview data in a variety of ways (Shaffir and Stebbins 1991). For example, my own experiences as a user of alternative therapies provides me with insider awareness that reinforces the validity of this research (Douglas 1976). Further, the participant observation I conducted gave me a deeper familiarity with the various alternative therapies these informants used and practised, including acupuncture, aromatherapy, astrological healing, bagua, Chinese herbal medicine, chiropractic, Christian Science medicine, creative visualization, crystal healing, ear candling, Feldenkrais method, herbal medicine, homeopathy, hypnotherapy, massage,...


To maintain good health, a regular intake of plant foods is essential. The health benefits associated with plant foods goes far beyond their vitamin, mineral, and fiber content. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, legumes, and herbs all contain a variety of phytochemicals (such as carotenoids, polyphenolics, terpenoids, phytosterols, and sulfides) that decrease the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases.2 Research efforts continue in an attempt to discover and understand the different mechanisms by which phytochemicals exert their health-promoting properties. It is known that some of the phytochemicals act synergistically to exert health benefits.202 Are the phytochemicals destroyed by cooking Most of the compounds are heat stable and are not significantly lost in the cooking water. The availability of carotenoids and the level of indoles in broccoli may actually be increased during cooking.203 Lycopene, for example, is more available from processed tomatoes...

The Study

Moreover, a qualitative research design was the natural choice for this research, as it ensures that the focus remains on the individual, emphasizing the value of the person's own story (Becker i996 vi). Such a focus allowed me to form an interpretive understanding of the motives and meanings behind individuals' participation in alternative approaches to health and healing (Becker 1966). Specifically, I used unstructured interviews as a primary means of data gathering (McCraken 1988).1 I also collected data through participant observation and review of a variety of printed materials. In total, twenty-one people participated in this research. Sufficient interviews were conducted such that themes and patterns in the data were confirmed by informant after informant (Glaser and Strauss 1967).2 I recruited informants using purposeful sampling, employing snowball and convenience techniques (Babbie 1986P In addition to approaching individuals independently, I placed flyers describing the...

Cost Utility

The value that patients and society place on certain outcomes and levels of functioning can also play a role in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of certain procedures. The cost-effectiveness of a certain intervention can be expressed as the net benefit to a population by using statistical probabilities of certain outcomes occurring along with specific costs associated with various outcomes as documented from the medical literature. One example of this is the use of the Markov decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of performing carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients with 60 stenosis (Cronenwett et al., 1997). The measurement units in this study are in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) defined as the fraction of a year in perfect health that the patient believes to be equivalent in value to a year in the health state in question.

Relational theory

Arelational theory of women's development, described by several authors,28-30 provides an excellent anchor from which to understand the challenges that may face the mid-life woman as she ages. This theory holds that a woman's development must be understood in the context of attachment, relationship, and mutuality. Autonomy is achieved through connection to others, rather than through separation or detachment. Those forces that serve to foster continued connectedness, even in the face of loss, will, thereby, promote health and wellbeing. Concomitantly, those forces that sever connection, such as those frequently associated with aging, may lead to illness. Yet, the specific meaning of these losses must be kept in perspective the converse also may well be true. With some disconnections, there is new found independence, freedom, or potential for change that was previously unexplored.

Normal healthy diet

Case S.K. is a generally healthy 49-year-old woman who presents for a routine annual exam. She complains of occasional hot flushes and asks what she can do about them without taking hormones. She also has a family history of cancer in several relatives, so she wants to know what she should do with her diet to stay healthy.


The endocrine system is an interconnected system of glands that produces substances known as hormones. These glands are not connected directly, but are nonetheless connected by the circulatory system. The hormones these glands produce have wide-ranging effects on the body. The production of the proper hormone in the proper amount at the proper time is absolutely essential for the maintenance of good health. An imbalance of one of these hormones causes widely varying effects upon the body.

Precolumbian Mexico

The Natural History of the New Spain and the Nova Plantarum, Animalium etMineralium Mexicanorum Historia written by Francisco Hernandez, the first chief physician appointed to the West Indies by King Phillip II of Spain, where he tried to fit Indian medicine into the paradigms of Galen.

Endurance training

As little as two to three days per week are required to gain health benefits from a moderate-intensity (50 maximum oxygen consumption) endurance-training program. These health benefits include a reduction in systolic and diastolicblood pressure, total cholesterol, andbody mass index, and an increase in HDL cholesterol.26,27 Brisk walking for three or more hours per week can reduce the risk of cardiac events in middle-aged women (relative risk 0.65).28 Becoming physically active in middle age also reduces the risk of cardiac events. Exercise can be used as preventive medicine.


A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, CAB, SOCIOFILE, and EMBASE to find all articles published up to and including 2003 referring to traditional herbal remedies for malaria (key words malaria traditional medicine malaria, therapy). References of relevant articles were searched, and some journals were searched by hand, to try to identify as many relevant articles as possible. The Research Initiative on Traditional Antimalarial Methods (RITAM) network (consisting of over 200 researchers in the field of traditional antimalarials) was consulted and conferences attended in an attempt to identify all published and unpublished case reports and clinical studies on herbal antimalarials.

General Points

Any place where traditional herbal remedies are used for the treatment of malaria should be considered as a potential study site for initial observations. However, the level of immunity of the population varies widely from area to area, according to the level of malaria transmission. Therefore, it is important to record the level of endemicity of malaria in the area as background information. Observed improvements are more likely attributable to the treatment in areas of unstable transmission where populations have lower levels of immunity. It is also important to record whether the area is rural or urban, and approximately what remedies as a first-line treatment for malaria.

Controlled Trials

Eight controlled trials have been reported and are summarised in Table 19.5. Not all of these were randomised or double blind. The four trials of Ayush-64 were reported to be double blind, as both the herbal medicine and the drug were administered in identical capsules (CCRAS, 1987 Valecha et al., 2000). Koita (1991) randomised patients to receive either a traditional herbal decoction or chloroquine tablets patients and doctors could not be blinded, but the laboratory technicians performing the parasite counts were blinded. Randomisation and blinding are not reported for the other trials. Only one trial was placebo controlled (Tsu, 1947). Of the trials for falciparum malaria, the most promising is that of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, in which parasite clearance took only 1 day longer than with chloroquine, and in which fever clearance was 12 hours faster (see Chapter 8). Also of interest was the trial of Malarial although parasites were not cleared completely by the herbal medicine,...


Epidemiological evidence suggests that individuals taking statin drugs for lowering cholesterol had a decreased risk of developing AD 228-230 . When indication bias (that healthier people take statins) is addressed, the epidemiological relationship remains 231 . There does not appear to be an influence from APOE genotype, African American race, education, history of heart disease, stroke or diabetes 232 . Statins appear to reduce the Abeta

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