Sheldon Harvard

AAMI (1993) American Association for Medical Instrumentation Standards and Recommended Practices Biomedical Equipment. Vol 2, 4th ed, Arlington, Virginia, USA. Albrecht U (2002) Invited review Regulation of mammalian circadian clock genes. Journal Applied Physiology, 92 1348-1355. Arendt J (1995) Melatonin and the Mammalian Pineal Gland. Chapman and Hall, London. Armentano RL, Cabrera Fischer EI, Levenson J, Barra JG, Breitbart GJ, Pichel RH, Simon A (1990) Effects of muscarinic and -adrenergic...

Comments and Conclusions

In terms of chapters, this is roughly one half of the book, hence, it is a good place to glance back at the trodden path to, thereafter, quickly take a look at the half of the way ahead of us. The INTRODUCTION (Chapter 1) set the objectives and offers some definitions to start with. Chapter 2, the longest so far, presented the SOURCE of the information we are dealing with this is why physiology dominated the scene in it. Sources give off information in the form of SIGNALS (Chapter 3) and they...

The Pineal Gland and the Biological Clock

Valentinuzzi and Max E. Valentinuzzi Time permeates the Universe and timing permeates animal and human life. Every day our serum Cortisol level peaks at approximately our wake-up time, growth hormone reaches its maximum blood level at the beginning of our sleep phase, prolactin does so soon after, while thyrotropin hormone peaks in the last part of our sleep phase. In the same way, mostly every hypothalamic, hypophyseal and hypophysis-dependent hormones show a fixed temporal...

Reticular Activating System RAS

This is a diffuse and an ill-defined system that partially includes structures such as the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhomboencephalon down to the medulla oblongata. Its function is related to sleep. The lower portions have excitatory (mesencephalon) and inhibitory (pons and medulla oblongata) actions over the upper diencephalic area, leading to characteristic sleep responses when lesions or stimulation of these regions take place. This unique system seems to be also related to the...

Witchery Charlatanism Frankenstein Science Fiction

From the witch doctor to the biomedical engineer When suffering hits, people seek relief wherever and from any hand From the real and the illusion, from the truth and from lies, in spells and in magic, in praying and faith. They're hopes and beliefs of so many that few, just barely, are able to grasp. Ever since the appearance of man on the surface of the Earth, diseases along with natural phenomena and catastrophes have interfered with his life. Sorcerers, witch doctors and their witchery were...

Functional Unit The Neuromuscular Junction

The spinal cord gives off efferent motor fibers that innervate specific skeletal muscles. One fiber controls several muscle fibers following orders emanated, say, voluntarily from the motor cortex, or reflexly from a spinal segment. In big strong muscles, as the biceps, or the triceps, or muscles of the leg, the ratio is very large, that is, a single nerve fiber may take care of 100 or 200 muscle fibers, while in fine movement muscles (as in the fingers or lips or the vibrissae of a rodent's...

Info

HIGHER AND SPINAL CENTERS. Three main tracts interconnect them. The pyramidal channel controls voluntary movements. See text. untary movements follow this path and injuries in this area lead to either total or partial paralysis depending on the extension of the damage. Hemiplegia (paralysis of one side) and hemiparesia (weakness of one side) represent the two typical and rather common human conditions after a cerebrovascular stroke (CVS). Since there is a crossover from one side to...