Now, the probability of the ligand molecule being present in the collision volume AV is pL = 1 (it is given that one ligand molecule arrived creating a collision volume of AV).

Probability of the protein being present in an arbitrary uniformly distributed AV in the total volume, V (V denotes the total volume of the cell), is pP = AV.n2/V, where, n2 denotes the number of protein molecules present inside the cell.

Thus, probability of the ligand molecule to collide with the protein during time At:

n2nrp LUAt V

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