Easy Ways to Control Territorial Cat Spraying

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Read more here...

Cat Spray No More Summary


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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. Read more here...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

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Toxoplasmosis In Pets 651 Cats

Most cats are asymptomatic during a primary T. gondii infection. Fever (40.0-41.7 C) is present in many cats with clinical toxoplasmosis. Clinical signs of dyspnea, polypnea, and icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort were the most frequent findings in 100 cats with histologically confirmed toxoplasmosis (Dubey and Carpenter, 1993). Uveitis and retinochoroiditis are also common clinical signs in cats with toxoplasmosis. Gross and microscopic lesions are found in many organs, but are most common in the lungs. Gross lesions in the lungs consist of edema and congestion, failure to collapse, and multifocal areas of firm, white to yellow, discoloration. Pericardial and abdominal effusions may be present. The liver is the most frequently affected abdominal organ, and diffuse necrotizing hepatitis may be visible grossly. Gross lesions associated with necrosis can also be observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes and pancreas. All ages, sexes, and breeds of domestic cats are susceptible to...

Geographic Distribution

Histoplasmosis is found in the five continents nevertheless its prevalence varies widely in accordance with the ecological conditions in the places where the fungus is isolated. Countries with temperate, subtropical and tropical climates are those of higher incidence, such as the United States, Mexico, all of the countries of Central America, Venezuela, Colombia and Argentina (Rev Inst Med Trop Sau Paulo 1995 37 531-535). Cases have also been reported in Japan, Thailand, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and the Philippines. In Europe it has been diagnosed in Italy, Turkey and in the countries of central Africa, South Africa and also in Australia. In the USA the endemic type of histoplasmosis usually predominates. In Latin America tourist groups, miners and speleologists that visit bat caves are often affected by what is considered to be an occupational mycosis. It has recently been described in dogs and cats in a new endemic zone in Texas. In Mexico, the epidemic form of the...

Organism 2Spirometra species

Organisms (plerocercoid larvae) of the genus Spirometra and also other species of Diphyllobothrium, parasites of cats and other mammals which are unable to mature in an abnormal host (man), are responsible for the disease known as sparganosis. Infections are initiated when man swallows infected copepods in drinking water which then develop into the sparganum they may be initiated when fish, amphibians (frogs, tadpoles) or snakes are consumed raw, transferring the sparganum larva or they may be introduced when the flesh of frogs or snakes is used as a poultice applied to a lesion or wound. As the sparganum larvae localize in the abnormal site, they cause a painful inflammatory reaction in adjacent tissues. Depending upon the site, these organisms may cause intense and serious disease processes, particularly in certain species which seem to proliferate by budding or splitting and result in many individual larvae. Diagnosis is made by recognition of larval forms from tissue biopsies.

Sea otters and other marine mammals

Toxoplasmosis was recognized as a significant cause of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in the early 1990s (Cole et al., 2000). Encephalitis is the primary cause of T. gondii-associated death in these sea otters (Kreuder et al., 2003). This was unexpected, as sea otters do not ingest the usual intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and their location in seawater keeps them segregated from cats. Definitive proof that T. gondii was killing the sea otters came when viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of sea otters (Cole et al., 2000 Lindsay et al., 2001a) and isolated parasites from sea otters were shown to retain the ability to make oocysts when fed to cats (Cole et al., 2000). Initial isolates were all type II genotypes of T. gondii (Cole et al., 2000), but a novel new genotype X was identified in sea otter a few years later (Miller et al., 2004). It has been postulated that T. gondii oocysts excreted in the feces of feral cats living along the Pacific...

Prevention And Control

Reduction in B. henselae transmission can be achieved via elimination of cat fleas and avoidance of traumatic injury by cats. Prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex infections or other reasons with macrolides seems to protect also against Bartonella infections in HIV-infected persons.119 Reduction of infection in the known reservoirs of bartonel-loses, for example, humans (B. bacilliformis and B. quintana) and cats (B. henselae), could be theoretically be accomplished by vaccination. It is also conceivable that an agent for which there is no nonhuman reservoir, such as B. bacilliformis and B. quintana, might eventually be eradicated.

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

A fatal viral disease transmitted to humans by the bites of raccoons, skunks, foxes, coyotes, dogs, cats, and bats. Rabies virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Rabies has a long incubation period (approximately 3-8 weeks) death usually results from respiratory failure. JEl P-200

Treatment And Prognosis

Postexposure treatment for 7 days with doxycycline or other tetracycline, chloramphenicol, or ciprofloxacin is recommended for persons who have had a known close exposure to a pneumonic plague patient in the prior 7 days. Oral doxycycline or ciprofloxacin has been recommended for postexposure prophylaxis in the event of a terrorist attack with Y. pestis.2 Pre-exposure prophylaxis may occasionally be recommended for persons who are unable to avoid visiting or residing in an area where a plague outbreak is in progress or who are screening or caring for plague patients in unusual circumstances, such as an outbreak. To reduce the risk of airborne droplet spread, plague patients should have a chest radiograph to rule out pulmonary involvement. Patients with suspected pneumonic plague should be managed in isolation under respiratory droplet precautions until the patient has responded clinically and sputum cultures are negative (sputum typically is sterile within 24 to 48 hours of beginning...

Virusassociated cancers in animals

It was demonstrated early in the 20th century that filterable agents cause a leukosis (a B cell leukaemia lymphoma) and a sarcoma in chickens. These agents were subsequently shown to be retro-viruses and the sarcoma-causing virus was named Rous sarcoma virus after its discoverer, Peyton Rous (Section 16.4). Other retroviruses were subsequently found to be causative agents of leukaemia in cats and cattle, and a retrovirus known as Jaagsiekte sheep retro-virus was found to be responsible for adenocarcinoma of the lung in sheep.

Biologic and Virologic Properties

The biologic properties of NiV and HeV are similar to those of other Paramyxovirinae in many respects, but quite distinct in several others. NiV and HeV grow to high titers in cell cultures derived from different organs of many species.2,8,27,28 Both viruses induce a strong cytopathic effect in the form of syncytia.28-30 The extent of diversity of the paramyxoviruses is further underscored by the fact that unlike the other paramyx-oviruses, NiV and HeV are able to cause infection, disease, and death in a wide range of species including humans, pigs, horses, cats, and dogs. These findings raise questions about the evolutionary relationships with members of the order Mononegavirales. Electron microscopic studies of NiV and HeV show classical morphologic features of viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. They are pleomorphic enveloped viruses of variable diameter (120 to 500 nm), and in infected cells, they have helical filamentous nucleocapsids with the typical herringbone...

Prion diseases in animals

In the early years of the BSE outbreak many other species of domestic and captive mammal developed spongiform encephalopathies. These animals included domestic cats, big cats (such as puma and tiger) and herbivores (such as bison and eland). It is likely that these cases resulted from feeding animals meat from BSE-infected cattle.

Australian marsupials

Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually life-ending in marsupials from Australia or New Zealand. Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis often occur in these animals when housed in zoos (see below). These animals evolved in the absence of cats and T. gondii, and this may be why they are so highly susceptible.

Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat Diabetes

Denton, 2004) Used to treat diabetes (Nagaraja and Rao, 1989) Extract used to treat diabetes (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Extracts from the whole plants have antidiabetic activity (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Antidiabetic activity in cats (Handa et al., 1989) Reduces blood glucose and increases insulin release in rats could adversely interfere with glycemic control if used with glibenclamide (Ali, 1997)

Toxoplasmosis In Humans

And died on the thirtieth day of illness. The brain and spinal cord were removed for histopathological examination and bioassay. Because of the suspicion of polio virus infection, a homogenate of cerebral cortex was inoculated into mice. T. gondii was isolated from the inoculated mice, and this isolate was given the initials of the child, becoming the famous RH strain. Only small lesions of nonsuppurative encephalitis were found microscopically in the brain of this child neither gross lesions nor any viral or bacterial infections were found. This child most likely had acquired T. gondii infection recently, and the blow to the head was coincidental and unrelated to the onset of symptoms. It is noteworthy that some mice infected with the original RH strain did not die until day 21 post-inoculation, but by the third passage mice died 3-5 days after inoculation. The RH strain of T. gondii has since 1938 been passaged in mice in many laboratories. After this prolonged passage, its...

Collarettes In Rhizopus

Histoplasma Capsulatum Microconidia

The answer is b. (Levinson, pp 287-288.) Hairs infected with Microsporum canis and M. audouini both fluoresce with a yellow-green color under Wood's light, while Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, and Epidermo-phyton floccosum do not. But M. audouini is an anthropophilic agent of tinea capitis, whereas M. canis is zoophilic. M. canis is primarily seen in children and is associated with infected cats or dogs.

Medications to Facilitate Bladder Emptying

Alpha adrenergic blockers may facilitate transmission through the parasympathetic ganglia and in turn cause bladder contractility in addition to decreasing outlet resistance. There have been several studies that promoted the use of alpha blockade to prevent postoperative retention (17,18) or in the treatment of nonobstructive urinary retention (19). It is possible that the alpha adrenergic blockers may not just relax the bladder outlet, but rather facilitate the detrusor reflex by a direct or indirect effect on the parasympathetic ganglia. This phenomenon was demonstrated by DeGroat through his studies on cats (20,21).

Molecular Epidemiological Studies

Conclusion that the outbreak was caused by oocyst contamination of the local water reservoir. Infected feral cats and cougars were both found in the watershed area (Aramini et al., 1998), but attempts to extract oocysts from the water supply were unsuccessful. The only isolate found in the neighborhood was isolated from cougar feces and was found to have an atypical genotype (Lehmann et al., 2000 Grigg et al., 2001a). This isolate was supposed to be at the origin of the outbreak. Similarly, other reported oocyst-associated infections also rely on circumstantial evidence (Benenson et al., 1982 Bahia-Oliveira et al., 2003).

Environmental factors

If genotypes are selected by host species, this could be driven either by opportunities for transmission between sympatric hosts or by variation in susceptibility due to local adaptation. If this is true, then there may be an intrinsic co-evolutionary link between host and parasite genotypes. Only a limited number of host species, such as cats, a few meat-producing animals, and peri-domestic mammals and birds, are involved in T. gondii's domestic cycle, which may limit the complexity of the parasite genetic pool in this cycle. Among many genotypes, the three clonal lineages seem to be most successfully adapted to these domestic hosts (Lehmann et al., 2003). They would have diverged about 10 000 years ago, which coincides with the domestication of companion and agricultural animals (Su et al., 2003). In Europe or North America, intensive breeding of a narrow range of domestic meat-producing animals together with cat domestication offered a major niche to these three lineages. Nowadays,...

Meningoencephalitis s ee Encephalitis Mercury

Mercurous chloride (calomel) and mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) have antiseptic proprieties, but mercury-containing therapeutic agents, such as these, diuretics and ointments, are not nowadays used. Mercury poisoning thus usually arises from industrial accidents. Industrial exposure may be indirect, as in the Minamata accident in Japan in the early 1950s when factory effluent into a local bay affected fishermen and their families together with their household cats and the nearby seabirds. Toxicity has also

Rationale for intravesical application of TRPV1 agonists

Clinical interest on TRPV1 agonists for the treatment of bladder diseases started with the observation that reflex bladder contractions triggered by bladder filling in intact or spinally transected cats had distinct sensibilities to systemic capsaicin. In spinally transected cats, but not in intact cats, reflex bladder contractions were completely suppressed by the neurotoxin 1 . The identification of two neuronal pathways involved in micturition control offered a solid explanation to this finding. A long pathway passing through the pontine micturition center and initiated in AS-, capsaicin-resistant, bladder sensory fibers controls reflex bladder contractions in mammals with intact spinal cord. A short neuronal pathway entirely lodged in the sacral spinal cord and initiated in type C, capsaicin-sensitive, bladder sensory fibers, usually inactive in adult mammals, is enhanced after spinalization and replaces the supra-spinal reflex 1 . Bladder contractions triggered by the sacral...

Feline models of ocular toxoplasmosis

A feline model of intracarotid inoculation of 5000 tachyzoites was successful in producing a reliable model of lesions of ocular toxoplasmosis (Davidson et al., 1993). Because the feline model has primarily choroidal involvement, it differs from human ocular infection. Usually, similar to human infection, initial infection with Toxoplasma in cats is subclinical (Dubey and Beattie, 1988). The organism has been found on histopathology throughout the eye (Dubey and Carpenter, 1993). Since over 50 percent of cats may be seropositive for T. gondii, antibody assays of ocular fluid have been developed to help diagnose Toxoplasma as an etiology of feline uveitis (Chavkin et al., 1994). The infrequent identification of organisms by histopathology (Peiffer and Wilcock, 1991) has led to theories hypothesizing an indirect T. gondii antigen etiology to feline Toxoplasma-related uveitis (Davidson and English, 1998). PCR assays of intraocular fluid have demonstrated, however, that direct infection...

Models based on infection via the carotid artery

An intermediate model, situated between the localized eye infection and the eye infection as a consequence of a generalized challenge, was established by Davidson et al. in cats. These authors used intra-carotid inoculation to concentrate the parasites in ocular tissues to gain more predictable experimental ocular lesions with fewer systemic side effects (Davidson et al., 1993). Indeed, all eight cats infected with a relatively small number of the Me49 strain developed the ocular disease but showed no signs or only mild signs of a generalized infection (three cats developed an increase in temperature). The multifo-cal areas of choroidal and retinal inflammation exhibited many similarities to ocular toxoplasmosis in humans however, it differed from human ocular toxoplasmosis in its primary choroidal versus retinal nature (Davidson et al., 1993).

New strains of influenza virus A

Most, if not all, of the human cases of 'bird flu' caused by H5N1 and H9N2 viruses were in people who work with poultry and who presumably became infected as a result of direct contact with virus on the birds themselves, or in their faeces. Like many of the animal coronaviruses that have infected humans (Section 21.5.1), these avian influenza viruses appeared to have little or no propensity for human-to-human transmission. H5N1 viruses have also infected other mammalian species including domestic cats tigers and leopards at a zoo in Thailand died as result of infections that they acquired from eating virus-contaminated chickens.

Alternative Approaches

The observation that apoptosis may be manipulated by growth factors suggested an alternative therapeutic approach. The first indication that this may be viable was the demonstration that injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) into the eye resulted in long-term survival of photoreceptors in the RCS rat (19). A potential disadvantage of bFGF is its lack of specificity since it influences many cell types. For instance in the rabbit, it can cause cataract and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (20). Neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin 4 5 (NT4 5) appear to be more attractive since they have a relatively specific influence on neural tissue (21). They are present in the CNS, and play important roles in neural development, differentiation and survival (21). Another important neurotrophic factor is the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) that is closely related to the interleukin 6 (IL-6) (22). There is an...

The answers are 403c 404a 405e 406b 407d

Visceral larva migrans is an occupational disease of people who are in close contact with dogs and cats. The disease is caused by the nematodes Toxocara canis (dogs) and T. cati (cats) and has been recognized in young children who have close contact with pets or who eat dirt. Symptoms include skin rash, eosinophilia, and hepatosplenomegaly.

S Functions During Coronavirus Entry

Several devastating animal pathogens such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine and infectious peritonitis virus of cats. CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecules (CEACAMs), immunoglobulin-like type I-oriented membrane glycoproteins that are prevalent in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, serve as receptors for the prototype member of the antigenic group 2 coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (Dveksler et al., 1991 Godfraind et al., 1995). Receptors for group 3 coronaviruses, which include several bird viruses causing severe bronchitis in chickens and turkeys, are currently unknown.

Efficacy Studies

Example Inhibition of Cathepsin S (CatS) expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells by an antisense oligonucleotide. 7. Add CatS antibody (6) diluted 1 500 with 0.1 BSA PBS and incubate sections overnight at 4 C. Example Accumulation of autofluorescent debris in rod outer segment challenged retinal pigment cells with or without the presence of a CatS-specific antisense oligonucleotide. CatS is a lysosomal enzyme present in the RPE cells. It has been demonstrated previously, that inhibition of CatS activity by leupeptin leads to the accumulation of an autofluorescent debris in the RPE cells in vivo (7). In this assay, autofluorescent debris accumulation in ROS challenged cultured RPE cells was used to monitor the efficacy of antisense ODN-mediated inhibition of CatS, by monitoring a relevant biological function (Fig. 3).

The Brain in Sleep8

The story begins with experiments done by a Belgian physiologist, Frederick Bremer (Bremer, 1935, 1936). He made a cut between the brain and the spinal cord (cut C in Figure 28) in cats knowing that this procedure would cut the brain off from arousing stimuli from the body. Without such stimulation, he reasoned the brain would remain continuously asleep. Of course, the body was paralyzed, but Bremer could observe signs of sleep and wakefulness in the head, such as what was happening in the eyeballs and the types of brainwaves produced. He noted more sleep than usual, but there were periods of wakefulness. He reasoned that the brief wakefulness occurred, because there was still sensory input via the cranial nerves in the brainstem that transported sensory information from the head. When he made a similar cut higher in the brain between the midbrain and the forebrain (cut D in Figure 28), input from most cranial nerves was also cut off except for smell and vision. These cats slept...

Rabies Hydrophobia

Rabies is an acute infectious disease of the central nervous system to which all warm-blooded animals, including man, are susceptible. It is a viral encephalitis which is transmitted when infected saliva gains entry into the body by a bite through an open wound. The host range for this disease is both the carnivorous and chiropterna (bat) species to include skunks found in the Midwest and California, foxes found in the east and southeast, raccoons from Florida and Georgia, bats found in the entire US, and occasionally, there are cases in which coyotes, bobcats, wolves, and squirrels are rabid. Domestic animals that are hosts for rabies are dogs, cats, cows, pigs, horses, and mules. The virus travels in the nerves to the brain, multiplies, and then migrates along the efferent nerves to the salivary glands. The incubation period is variable. It is usually between two and eight weeks, but can vary from 10 days to eight months.


FIGURE 24-1 Helicobacter pylori (3.5 X 0.6 m) has a smooth wall and four to seven sheathed flagella arising from only one end of the cell. These features distinguish it from Campylobacter spp., which have rough cell walls and a single, thinner, unsheathed flagellum at each end of the cell. Other Helicobacter spp. have distinguishing features such as many flagella and axial filaments (H. felis from cats) or flagella sprouting from the sides of the organism (H. mustelae from ferrets). Mature organisms appear as spiral forms with 1.5 wavelengths. FIGURE 24-1 Helicobacter pylori (3.5 X 0.6 m) has a smooth wall and four to seven sheathed flagella arising from only one end of the cell. These features distinguish it from Campylobacter spp., which have rough cell walls and a single, thinner, unsheathed flagellum at each end of the cell. Other Helicobacter spp. have distinguishing features such as many flagella and axial filaments (H. felis from cats) or flagella sprouting from the sides of...


Humans and a wide range of animals are thought usually to become infected by inoculation or contamination of wounds or mucosae with soil or surface water, although a specific exposural incident is only identified in 6 to 25 of cases.20,21 Infections occurred in a disproportionate number of helicopter crewmen during the Vietnam War, possibly through inhalation of aerosols generated by the rotors.22 Two recent outbreaks in Australia have been traced to potable water supplies, although the mode of transmission was uncer-tain.23,24 There is no evidence that ingestion or insect vectors play a role in transmission. Although melioidosis has been observed in a wide range of animal species (including rodents, primates, sheep and goats, pigs, cattle, horses, deer, dogs and cats, dolphins, koalas, kangaroos, camels, crocodiles, and birds), transmission from animals to humans has rarely been reported,25 and person-to-person spread is also extremely uncommon.26 Iatrogenic infection from...


Dermatophytic infections can be transmissible from the environment (geophilic, M. gypseum), from infected animals zoophilic, M.canis (dogs and cats), rodents (T. mentagrophytes), bovine cattle (T. verrucosum), monkeys (T. simii) , or from infected people (anthropophilic). The severity and the course of the infection depends on the species of the dermatophyte and the host response. The granular colonies (zoophilic) generally cause an acute tinea and the anthropo-philic cause mild inflammation and a chronic course. Dermatophytes can infect humans when exposed to a contagious source. Factors include a genetic predisposition to infection, humidity, heat, diabetes, the prolonged use of glucocorti-coids, unventilated shoes, poor hygiene, or wet feet. Dermatophytes in the hair can be transmitted from contaminated combs, spray, or oils.

Acute Q Fever

The radiographic features of Q fever pneumonia are variable. Subsegmental and segmental pleural-based opacities are common. Multiple rounded opacities are suggestive of this illness, especially the variety that follows exposure to parturient cats (Fig. 54-2). Pleural effusions occur in about one-third of patients. Hilar lymphadenopathy may also be present.


Discussion Rat bite fever, which is caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis, is an acute febrile illness that is usually accompanied by a skin rash most cases result from the bites of wild or lab rats, although mice, squirrels, weasels, dogs, and cats may also transmit the disease by bites or scratches. The disease is called Haverhill fever when S. moniliformis is transmitted by drinking rat-excrement-contaminated milk. Distribution is probably worldwide, with most cases occurring in crowded cities characterized by poor sanitation.

ROPs and RONs

Virtually all the information regarding the contents or functions of the rhoptries has come from the tachyzoite stage. Only one bradyzoite-specific ROP has been described (Schwarz et al., 2005). This specific bradyzoite rhoptry protein 1 (BRP1) was identified by a bioinformatic analysis of previously identified genes that are highly expressed during bradyzoite development and prediction of genes encoding secretory proteins (Cleary et al., 2002 Schwarz et al., 2005). BRP1 is also expressed in the merozoite stages in the gut of infected cats. The only homolog known is in the closely related parasite N. caninum. In vitro and in vivo analysis of BRP1 knockout parasites show that


Oocysts excreted by cougars (Felis concolor) were thought to be the source of a large waterborne outbreak of human toxoplasmosis in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, and oocysts were isolated from the feces of cougars collected around the watershed (Aramini et al., 1998). Experimental infections resulting in oocyst excretion have been demonstrated in jaguarundi (F. yagouaroundi), ocelot (F. pardalis), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) (Jewell et al., 1972 Miller et al., 1972). In general, these felids are not as efficient at producing oocysts as are domestic cats.

Prion transmission

The cases of TSE in cats and other species, coincident with the BSE outbreak, are thought to have been transmitted in meat containing the BSE agent (Section 26.4.1). A number of additional species have been infected with the BSE agent under experimental conditions, thus the BSE agent appears to have a wide 'host range'.


Was not attributed to oocysts or T. cati eggs. He repeated the experiment with two T. cati-infected and two T. cati-free cats. T. gondii was transmitted only in association with T. cati infection. On this basis, Hutchison (1967) hypothesized that T. gondii was transmitted through nematode ova. He suspected transmission of T. gondii through the eggs of the nematode Toxocara, similar to the transmission of the fragile flagellate Histomonas through Heterakis eggs. Hutchison initially wanted to test the nematode theory using Toxocara canis and T. gondii transmission in the dog, but decided on the cat and Toxocara cati model because there was no place to house dogs (1965, J.R Dubey, personal communication). Transmission of T. gondii by Toxocara canis eggs made more sense because of the known zoonotic potential of T. canis Toxocara cati was not at that time known to infect humans, but T. canis was. Discovery of the life cycle of T. gondii would have been delayed had Hutchinson worked with...


Tissue nematodes are found in all areas of the world. Trichinella spiralis, which causes trichinosis, is a tissue nematode found in temperate climates. Humans become infected by eating inadequately cooked pork and pork products that are contaminated. Figure 3-2 shows this parasite encapsulated in a muscle. Contact with the feces of infected dogs or cats is the source of infection for toxacariasis. Other tissue nematodes are transmitted by bites of infected mosquitoes and flies, usually in the tropics.

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