Natural Chlamydia Treatment System

Essential Guide to Cure Chlamydia

Is Chlamydia easily curable? The Answer is a big Yes! Chlamydia is one of the sexually transmitted diseases with proven treatment methods. In fact, there are two main treatment options available both of which have guaranteed results: Conventional medicine and natural medicine. These treatment options And lots of other previously unknown facts about Chlamydia have been explained at great length in this eBook. The Essential guide to Cure Chlamydia unveils the mystery of Chlamydia and methodically presents all the important bits of information that you should know about Chlamydia. The Banish Chlamydia Book tackles the sensitive subject of Chlamydia from the perspective of a professional and presents you with a goldmine of information and facts in a way that has never been done before.

Essential Guide to Cure Chlamydia Summary


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Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydiae are extremely labile, and therefore careful collection of specimens from the appropriate site is required in order to achieve optimal rates of isolation. The use of appropriate transport media and maintenance of a cold chain are essential for the successful isolation of these organisms. Appropriate sites to be sampled include the urethra in men, the endocervix and urethra in women, the rectum in both men and women, and the conjunctiva in cases of adult and neonatal conjunctivitis. Primary genital ulcerations, the urethra, endo-cervix, rectum, bubo aspirates, and draining sinuses may all be sampled in suspected cases of LGV Early studies on the role of C. trachomatis in genital tract disease depended on the isolation of these organisms in the yolk sacs of fertile hens' eggs. However, isolation in established cell lines has replaced eggs as the preferred method not only because chlamydiae cannot be readily propagated, but also because positive specimens are easier to detect....

Gonorrhea clap VD the drip and Chlamydia

Both men and women can have gonorrhea or chlamydia without any signs. Gonorrhea and chlamydia can have the same signs, though gonorrhea usually starts sooner and is more painful. Both men and women can have gonorrhea and chlamydia at the same time so it is best to treat for both. If not treated, either gonorrhea or chlamydia can make a man or a woman sterile (unable to have a baby). If a pregnant woman with gonorrhea or chlamydia is not treated before giving birth, the infection may get in the baby's eyes and make him blind (see p. 221). ' In the past, gonorrhea was usually treated with penicillin. But now in many areas the disease has become resistant to penicillin, so other antibiotics must be used. It is best to seek local advice about which medicines are effective, available, and affordable in your area. Medicines used to treat gonorrhea and chlamydia are listed on p. 360. If the drip and pain have not gone away in 2 or 3 days after trying a treatment, the gonorrhea could be...

Chlamydia Antibody Tests

Chlamydia is a bacterium that requires living cells for growth. There are three recognized species of chlamydia, all of which are pathogenic to humans. Chlamydia infections are considered to be the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in North America, particularly the United States. These infections occur primarily in the genitalia, and are also found in the conjunctiva, pharynx, urethra, and rectum. Chlamydia trachomatis is the species of chlamydia that causes trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, pelvic inflammatory disease, and inclusion conjunctivitis. In addition to these diseases, chlamydia is a frequent cause of sterility. Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis produce an immune response. Antibodies can be measured using complement fixation, IF A, and PCR techniques.

Neonatal Chlamydial Infections

Neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis has long been recognized as the result of an infection transmitted from mothers to their babies during passage through the birth canal. With the advent of sensitive tissue culture techniques, it became apparent that some babies delivered vaginally through an infected cervix developed a mucopurulent conjunctivitis. The onset of the disease is generally insidious, following an incubation period of 1 to 3 weeks. Hyperemia, chemosis, and a discharge that becomes progressively purulent are the most prominent features of the infection. However, lymphoid follicles, which are characteristically found in adult chlamydial infections of the eye, are notably absent unless the infection persists for more


This disease is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It is the most common bacterial STD in women, occurring up to five times more frequently than gonorrhea. The long-term sequelae arise from pelvic adhesions, causing chronic pain and infertility. When the active infection ascends to the upper genital tract and becomes symptomatic, it is known as acute pelvic inflammatory disease (acute PID). Transmission from an infected gravida to her newborn may take place at delivery, causing conjunctivitis and otitis media. Symptoms. Most chlamydial cervical infections, and even salpingo-oophoritis, are asymptomatic.

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), or lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted, systemic disease caused by serotypes L1, L2, and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. It occurs in three well-recognized stages. Males suffer from urethritis. Woman are asymptomatic reservoir, and babies born of infected mothers can have the disease. LGV, often mistaken for syphilis, was first described in 1913 by Durand, Nicolas and Favre (BullMed SocMed Hosp 1913 35 274).

DNA amplification technologies

Corsaro, D., Valassina, M., Venditti, D., Venard, V., Le Faou, A., and Valensin, P.E. (1999) Multiplex PCR for rapid and differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in respiratory infections. Diagnosis in Microbiology and Infectious Disease 35, 105-8. The use of PCR to detect infectious organisms as a cause of asthma.

Biologic Characteristics

C. trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma, is one of three species within the genus Chlamydia that are human pathogens.3 C. trachomatis causes trachoma. It also contains serovars that cause genital tract disease and is now identified as the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen (see Chapter 48). C. psittaci is almost ubiquitous among avian species and causes the human disease psittacosis, but it also includes other strains of mammalian origin (see Chapter 49). Chlamydiae have a complex cell wall (similar to gramnegative bacteria in composition), both DNA and RNA, prokaryotic ribosomes, and metabolic enzymes that would permit independent existence, except that they lack energy-production mechanisms. Moulder5 thus termed the chlamydiae to be energy parasites and credited their obligate intra-cellular parasitism to this trait. An unusual characteristic of the obligately intracellular chlamydiae is their developmental growth cycle. The extracellular form of the...

Infections of the Genital Tract in

Chlamydial infection of the urethra results in the development of NGU. C. trachomatis is the causative agent in approximately 50 of cases of NGU, while other possible causes include Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma ure-alyticum. Clinically, chlamydia-positive and chlamydia-negative NGU cannot be differentiated on the basis of signs or symptoms. The incubation period of NGU (including chlamydial urethritis) is longer than that of gonorrhoea, varying from 1 to 3 weeks in the majority of cases, and the onset of symptoms of NGU is more insidious. These symptoms include dysuria, appearance of a clear or white urethral discharge, and occasionally frequency of micturition. Many patients may be asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, which results in prolonged periods when they may be infectious to their sexual partner. Despite these mild manifestations, it is often difficult to differentiate between gonococcal and chlamydial infections on clinical grounds alone and, indeed, the two...

Pathogenesis And Immunity

Chlamydiae have little if any intrinsic toxicity and thus disease is primarily a factor of the host response to infection. The immunologic interactions between chlamydial organisms and their host are extremely complex and not fully understood. The humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by these organisms may aid in control and elimination or actually be responsible for exaggerated inflammatory reactions and tissue damage. Primary focus on immunopathologic targets has been directed toward the chlamydial heat shock protein 60, which is thought to interact with certain inflammatory cell receptors resulting in cell activation.37 Following infection, the host's initial response is the formation of an acute local inflammatory reaction, which may resolve spontaneously with the eradication of the causative organism. However, the most frequent outcome is a chronic inflammatory process that may be protective but may also contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease process. Following...

A 12hourold newborn is noted to have bilateral conjunctival injection tearing and some swelling of the left eyelid

Ophthalmia neonatorum is caused by chemicals or infection. Chemical conjunctivitis caused by instillation of silver nitrate is the most common cause of conjunctivi-' ' tis presenting in the first 24 hours of life. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are common infectious causes of neonatal conjunctivitis. Chlamydia is the most common infec- Presentation. Tearing, conjunctival injection, lid edema, and discharge are the hallmarks of conjunctivitis. Pain, photophobia, and decreased vision are rare and should make one suspicious of corneal disease. Gonococcal conjunctivitis is purulent and can occur at birth but usually occurs at 5 days of age or later if the patient has received topical antibiotic prophylaxis. Chlamydial conjunctivitis occurs about 5-23 days after birth. Treatment. Gonococcal conjunctivitis is treated with ceftriaxone. Prevention is with topical silver nitrate or topical erythromycin. Chlamydial conjunctivitis is treated with...

Serologic and Immunologic Diagnostic Methods

A CF test is available to measure host response to any chlamydial infection.39 It is still the most commonly used test for psittacosis and LGV, but it is too insensitive for trachoma or oculogenital infections. Usually, the antigen for the CF is obtained from a yolk sac-grown LGV strain and is prepared by boiling and treatment with phenol.

The answer is a Fauci 14e pp 14511455 Massive lifethreatening hemoptysis is 100 cc of blood in 24 h The most common

The answer is b. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 950-952.) The clinical presentation is most consistent with Legionnaires' disease. Patients are usually elderly, immunocompromised, or with chronic lung disease. Air conditioners, whirlpools, water-using machinery, and cooling towers have been linked to outbreaks of the disease. Clinical signs of the disease include fever, relative bradycardia, abdominal complaints, scanty cough, and laboratory abnormalities. Pontiac fever is an acute, self-limited, flulike illness due to Legionella, but it does not cause pneumonia. Psittacosis (Chlamydia) is pneumonia associated with the handling of birds. 132. The answer is b. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 1437-1439.) Pneumococcal pneumonia is abrupt in onset, with fever, pleuritic chest pain, and purulent sputum production. In young, otherwise healthy patients who present with a localized pneumonia (in this case right middle lobe) of gradual onset accompanied by dry cough and a predominance of extrapulmonary symptoms...

Diarrhea Physical Examination

A 47-year-old man presents with a nonproductive cough and rales on his chest examination. A chest x-ray film suggests atypical pneumonia. The pneumonia resolves after treatment with azithromycin. A diagnosis of psittacosis is established by the presence of complement fixing antibodies against Chlamydia psiltaci in the convalescent serum. Which of the following is the most likely occupation of this patient

Obstetrics and Gynecology

The answer is b. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 915-919, 926.) The patient most likely has pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infections typically occur during menstruation, and patients complain of abdominal pain and yellow mucopurulent vaginal discharge. Spread of the gonococci (or, in some cases, Chlamydia) into the upper abdomen may cause a perihepatitis or Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, and patients will complain of upper abdominal pain. Acute inflammation of Bartholin's gland (an infected duct) would be visible in the labium majus. Chancroid is due to Haemophilus ducreyi patients typically present with a painful ulcer that bleeds easily. 465-467. The answers are 465-c, 466-a, 467-d. (DeCherney, 8 e, pp 690-700.) Gardnerella vaginalis (the most common cause of vaginitis) causes a profuse, malodorous discharge. Wet mount preparation will demonstrate clue cells (epithelial cells with adherent bacteria that cause their borders to be irregular), and a KOH preparation...

Xylocaine Infiltration For Marsupialization

Marsupialization For Pulmonary

The presence of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis A 20-year-old G3P0030 obese female comes to your office for a routine gynecologic exam. She is single, but is currently sexually active. She has a history of five sexual partners in the past, and became sexually active at age 15. She has had three first-trimester voluntary pregnancy terminations. She uses Depo-Provera for birth control, and reports occasionally using condoms as well. She was treated for chlamydia last year, but denies any prior history of abnormal Pap smears. The patient denies use of any illicit drugs, but admits to smoking about one pack of cigarettes a day. Her physical exam is normal. However, 3 weeks later you receive the results of her Pap smear, which indicates a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. c. Previous history of chlamydia e. Chlamydia

Is Livergen Suitable For Three Months Pregnancies

The answer is a. (Braunwald, 15 e, pp 1118-1134.) Human papillomavirus (especially subtypes 16, 18, and 31) has an established relationship to abnormal Pap smears and cervical dysplasia. HIV, Chlamydia, or herpesvirus infections are not directly associated with cervical dysplasia.

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Vulvodynia Inner Labia

Lymphoepithelioma-like, 167 squamous cell, 161-164 urethral, 175 verrucous, 162-165 Caruncles hymenalis, 12 Cellulitis, 4, 86 Cervical carcinoma, 183 Cervical dysplasia, 74 Chancroid, 81-83 Chickenpox. See Varicella Chlamydia trachomatis, 80, 135 Circumcision, female genital, 6 Clitoris, 13

Intracellular Localization

Other microbes are internalized within phagocytic cells, especially macrophages. Once internalized in host cells, organisms such as Salmonella, Mycobacterium, Chlamydia, and Legionella use an extraordinary assortment of mechanisms to prevent their phagocytic vacuole from fusing with the host cells' acidifying lysosomes.70-72 For some parasites, the intra-cellular environment is an important determinant of parasitism. For example, Leishmania and Coxiella (unlike other pathogens) benefit from the acidic environment of the macrophage phagolysosome. Leishmania use the proton gradient across the lysosome to drive the energy-dependent uptake of two important substrates glucose and proline.73 Thus, Leishmania amastigotes actually survive in the macrophage phagolysosome because they benefit from its proton gradient and because they avoid activating the processes that normally kill ingested microorganisms. Leishmanial lipophosphoglycan inhibits the action of P-galactosidase, chelates calcium,...

Infectious Strictures

Inflammatory strictures associated with gonorrhea are much less common now than in the past. With the use of prompt and effective antibiotic treatment, gonococ-cal urethritis now progresses less often to gonococ-cal urethral strictures however, the place of chlamydia and Ureaplasma urealyticum (i.e., nonspecific urethritis NSU ) in the development of anterior urethral strictures is unclear.

Bartholins Cyst and Abscess

The two Bartholin's gland ducts drain into the posterolateral vestibule (Fig. 1A and B). Bartholin's duct cysts develop secondary to blockage of the duct and may become infected, leading to abscesses. A variety of aerobic and anaerobic organisms have been isolated from these abscesses, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and various bowel flora (1). Bartholin's duct cysts abscesses are most common during reproductive life. A Bartholin's mass in a woman over the age of 40 always raises the question of a malignancy, and a tissue specimen for pathological examination is indicated. Most therapeutic options for treatment of a Bartholin's cyst or abscess do not lead to a surgical pathology specimen however, if one is received, the Bartholin's gland and duct may be recognized by their unique mix of epithelial types mucinous in the glands, transitional in the ducts, and squamous at the orifice, with some admixture of types in the ducts common (Table 1).

Uncomplicated Genital Tract and Ocular Infections in Adults

Azithromycin, an azalide antibiotic related to the macro-lides, can be given as a single 1-g oral dose and has been found to be as effective as a 7-day course of doxycycline in the treatment of uncomplicated chlamydial genital tract infections Doxycycline and ofloxacin are contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation, and the safety and efficacy of azithromycin under these circumstances have not been fully established. Erythromycin remains the treatment of choice for chlamydial infections in pregnancy. However, many women are unable to tolerate the 500-mg-four-times-daily regimen and a lower dose (250 mg four times daily) for a longer period (14 days) may be acceptable. Alternatives include amoxicillin 500 mg orally three times daily for 7 days and clindamycin 450 mg orally four times daily for 14 days. Clinical presentations in which the likelihood of chlamydial infection is high enough to warrant inclusion of presumptive treatment for C. trachomatis include acute urethritis,...

Infections of the Genital Tract in Women

The endocervix is the most common site of infection with C. trachomatis in women. In many cases, the infection may be completely asymptomatic. However, those with symptoms may complain of vaginal discharge, dysuria, or lower abdominal pain. On examination, the cervix may appear normal or may be severely eroded with follicular hypertrophy and an associated mucopurulent endocervical discharge. Likewise, chlamydial infection of the urethra in women may either be asymptomatic or associated with urethral symptoms such as dysuria and frequency. C. trachomatis has been implicated in over 60 of cases of the so-called acute urethral syndrome in women. The infection is characterized by the presence of urethral symptoms together with a sterile pyuria.27 Ascending spread of C. trachomatis from the endocervical canal to the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and peritoneal cavity is the most serious complication of both asymptomatic and symptomatic chlamydial infection in women. The organism is capable...

Infected Eyes In Newborn Babies Neonatal Conjunctivitis

In the first 2 days of life, if a newborn baby's eyes get red, swell, and have a lot of pus in them, this is probably gonorrhea (p. 236). It must be treated at once to prevent the baby from going blind. If the eye infection begins between 1 and 3 weeks after birth, she may have chlamydia. The baby has picked up one or both of these diseases from the mother at birth. Treatment for chlamydia Treat with tetracycline or erythromycin ointment as described above. Also give erythromycin syrup by mouth, 30 mg. 4 times a day for 2 weeks. (This will treat pneumonia, which often affects babies with chlamydia.) All babies' eyes should be protected against gonorrhea and chlamydia, especially the eyes of babies whose mothers may have these diseases or whose fathers have pain when passing urine. (Mothers may have gonorrhea or chlamydia without knowing it.) If a baby develops gonorrhea or chlamydia of the eyes, both parents should be treated for these infections (p. 236).

In the Lower Central Part of a Womans Belly

This is almost always a late stage of gonorrhea or chlamydia (p. 236), with pain in the lower belly and fever. If these signs are mild, treat for gonorrhea (p. 360), and give tetracycline (p. 356) or erythromycin (p. 355) for 14 days. For more severe signs, also give 400 to 500 mg. of metronidazole 3 times a day for 10 days. If the woman is using an intrauterine device (IUD), it may need to be removed. See a health worker.

Overwhelming Postsplenectomy Sepsis

Ceftriaxone and doxycycline (to treat likely concomitant Chlamydial infection) for both patient and partner. Most apparent failures of correct antibiotic therapy are in fact due to reinfection in resistant cases, spect nomycin may be used. The term gay bowel syndrome is used in reference to enteric and perirectal infections that arc commonly encountered in immune-competent homosexual men in homosexuals with HIV, opportunistic organisms play a more important role. Common etiologic agents include Chlamydia trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum serovars, N. gonorrhoeae, HSV, Treponema pallidum, human papilloma virus, Campylobacter a pedes, Shigella, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia.

Agent Ehrlichia Chaffeensis

E. chaffeensis cells have a wide range of ultrastructural appearances.32 In general, two types of ehrlichial cells are observed within the vacuoles of host cells ehrlichiae with a central condensation of ribosomes and DNA fibrils, called dense-core cells, and ehrlichiae in which these components are evenly distributed throughout the bacterium, called reticulate cells. While both forms have been observed in replication, the gp120 that is implicated as an adhesin of E. chaffeensis is differentially expressed on dense-core cells, analogous to the situation in Chlamydia.33

Antigen and Nucleic Acid Probes

The EIA class of tests is designed for immunochemical detection of dissolved antigenic components. The tests have been designed with the use of plastic to absorb chlamydial LPS or with antigen capture in a sandwich format.34 Direct nucleic acid probes are commercially available. They are less sensitive than culture, although they are highly specific.34 In contrast, the amplified DNA technology, exemplified by LCR and PCR, is far more sensitive than cell culture and is extremely specific.29,30,35 The chlamydial genes can be detected in epithelial cell specimens and in male and female urine samples.36,37 Although noninvasive sampling (urine) is important for diagnosing sexually transmitted diseases, conjunc-tival swabs are still needed to collect specimens for trachoma.

Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests

Several nucleic acid amplification tests are commercially available for the detection of specific chlamydial nucleotide sequences which may be present in clinical specimens, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), strand displacement assay (SDA), ligase chain reaction (LCR), and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). In general, these assays have demonstrated extremely high sensitivities when compared to culture.47-49 The increased sensitivity is based on the theoretical ability to detect a single copy of the target sequence. The tests are designed to target sequences found in multiple copies per organism. There are up to 10 copies of the cryptic plasmid within C. trachomatis, and this is the target for the PCR, SDA, and LCR. A few cryptic plasmid-free C. trachomatis strains have been reported, but these do not appear to be widespread. The TMA test detects specific 23S ribosomal RNA in C. trachomatis, which may exist in up to 2000 copies per organism.50 Both the cryptic...

Management of Lymphogranuloma Venereum

As in other chlamydial infections of the genital tract, doxy-cycline is the treatment of choice for LGV, but prolonged therapy (100 mg orally twice daily for 21 days) may be required for complete resolution. Alternatively, erythromycin base 500 mg orally four times a day for the same duration may be provided. In some tropical countries, the erythromycin regimen may be preferred to provide adequate therapy for chancroid (caused by Haemophilus ducreyi), a disease with which LGV may frequently be confused.

Epidemiology In Developing Countries

Chlamydial infections of the genital tract have a worldwide distribution and usually constitute the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in both industrialized and developing countries. Genital chlamydial infections share those behavioral determinants that are responsible for the spread of other sexually transmitted infections factors that are frequently more evident in many developing country settings. The ability of C. trachomatis to elicit a relatively mild inflammatory reaction has resulted in the majority of infections in both men and women being either asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. While sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease has been recognized as a major cofactor in the heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in developing countries, an increase in number of CD4+ inflammatory cells in genital exudates elicited by mucosal chlamydial infection has also been considered to enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility and...

Treatment And Control

In trachoma-endemic regions, the goal of trachoma intervention programs is the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease. The new programs are based on four components, the SAFE strategy surgery to correct inturned eyelids antibiotics to eliminate the reservoir of chlamydial infection in the community and to reduce inflammation in individuals promotion of personal hygiene, with emphasis on facial cleanliness in young children and environmental changes to reduce transmission of trachoma through the elimination of human fecal material and provision of pure water supplies.40

Antigenic Composition and Diversity

All chlamydiae share a common lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is similar in structure but less complex than LPS from gram-negative bacteria.9 Significantly, the chlamydial LPS is antigenically distinct from that of most other bacteria and represents an important target for culture-independent diagnostic assays. Another essential antigenic component is the surface-exposed major outer membrane protein (MOMP).10 The MOMP is antigenically complex and displays both serovar-specific antigens and antigens shared by C. trachomatis strains that cause human infection.11 The latter antigen is also used for culture-independent detection of C. trachomatis. Consequently, diagnostic assays that detect LPS will identify all chlamydial species, whereas assays that detect MOMP will not identify C. psittaci or C. pneumoniae. Unlike the LPS

Genitalia and Anal Cultures

Urethral culture, obtained from male patients, utilizes a loop swab that is capable of scraping material from the mucosa of the anterior urethra. Epithelial cells as well as secretions are needed in order to differentiate between gonorrhea and chlamydia organisms. Gonorrhea organisms are found in the secretions or exudate collected from the urethra, whereas chlamydia exists within the epithelial cells. Variations from Normal. Pathogenic organisms identified by genitalia and anal culture are Chlamydia, Candida, Mycoplasma, Gardnerella vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis. These cultures are also used to distinguish toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and infectious processes associated with herpes simplex virus.

Diseases of Bacterial Origin

Culture results are negative and the patient continues to exhibit symptoms of disease. Antibody screening is a useful diagnostic tool for those individuals who have been treated with antibiotics, which may have destroyed or inhibited the growth of the bacteria. Syphilis, Lyme disease, Legionnaires' disease, chlamydia, and streptococcal diseases are often identified via antibody tests. Each of these disease processes is discussed individually.

Men And Women Who Are Not Able To Have Children Infertility

Chronic infection, especially pelvic inflammatory disease (see p. 243) due to gonorrhea or chlamydia, is a common cause of infertility in women. Treatment may help if the disease has not gone too far. Prevention and early treatment of gonorrhea and chlamydia mean fewer sterile women.


The earliest modification event during eukaryotic mRNA synthesis, the 5' cap acquisition, is a molecular target for antifungal drugs. The inefficacy of using this molecular target has been pointed out in a study that used comparative proteomics of wild and an mRNA capping enzyme-deficient mutant (De Backer et al., 2000). The pleiotropic effects one might expect upon the deletion were reflected in the large number of differentially expressed proteins with a globally reduced level of protein expression, but the overall functionality of the pathogen and its ability to cause infection remained intact, and the levels of a number of proteins were also significantly increased in the proteome of the mutant, including that of a heat shock protein, suggesting that the pathogen could easily survive under these less favourable growth conditions. In another study involving a drug-resistant H. pylori strain, proteome analysis revealed increased expression of proteins associated with resistance of...


Labs Greater than fourfold rise in complement-fixing antibody titer to a group antigen suggestive of infection with Chlamydia psittaci definitive diagnosis of psittacosis was made from sputum by isolation of C. psittaci in pretreated tissue culture cells. Discussion Psittacosis is an acute infection caused by Chlamydia psittaci it is characterized primarily by pneumonitis and systemic manifestations and is transmitted to humans by a variety of avian species, principally psittacine birds (parrots, parakeets). A history of contact with birds, particularly sick birds, or of employment in a pet shop or in the poultry industry provides a clue to the diagnosis of psittacosis in a patient with pneumonia, especially if bradycardia and splenomegaly are also present.

Catscratch Disease

Sputum exam revealed no bacterial organism microimmunofluorescence detected species-specific antibodies directed against Chlamydia outer-membrane proteins cultivation of G pneumoniae demonstrated on HEp-2 and HL cell lines. Overall, Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for approximately 6 -10 of all cases of pneumonia in the United States.

Tick Paralysis

Chlamydia trachomatis is typically seen in conjunctival scrapings in colony form in the epithelial cells as H-P inclusion bodies. Histologically there is lymphocytic infiltration involving the whole adenoid layer of parts of the conjunctiva special aggregations of lymphocytes form follicles that tend to show necrosis and certain large multinucleated cells ( leber's cells). Discussion Chlamydia trachomatis causes a variety of ocular diseases, including neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, sporadic inclusion conjunctivitis in adults, and sporadic as well as endemic trachoma trachoma is endemic in North Africa, in the Middle East, and among the Native American population of the southwestern United States. In endemic areas, trachoma is transmitted from eye to hand to eye, especially among young children in regions where standards of cleanliness arc poor. Sporadic trachoma infection in nonendemic areas as well as sporadic inclusion conjunctivitis in adults results from transmission of the...

Tfss Ab

The identification of additional likely examples (P. syringae AvrRpt2 cleavage of membrane associated RIN448) and more than 19 homologs from bacterial genome sequences44 implies that this is a very common motif. The identified sequences again suggest that the motif is shared by TTSS effectors from Yersinia, Pseudomonas, members of the Rhizobiaeceae, and uncharacterized high molecular weight putative toxins from Pasteurella multicoda, Haemophilus ducreyi, H. somnus, Chlamydia muridarum, and E. coli.

Acute pyelonephritis

Numerous neutrophils but no bacteria on Gram stain of discharge positive direct immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibody against Chlamydia routine bacterial cultures, including Thayer-Martin, do not show growth. The most common cause of nongonococcal urethritis is Chlamydia trachomatis', less frequently caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum. It is frequently coincident with gonococcal urethritis.

Hpi Pe

Tetracyclines are bacteriostatic antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosomal unit, blocking synthesis of protein by preventing attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA. if taken with alkaline foods such as milk and antacids, GI absorption is decreased. Tetracycline is used both therapeutically and prophylactically for chlamydial genitourinary infections, Lyme disease, tularemia, cholera, and acne. Other side effects include brownish discoloration of the teeth 111 children (com rain dicated in pregnancy), photosensitivity, aminoaciduria, proteinuria, phosphaturia, acidosis, and glycosuria (Fanconi-like syndrome), p.262, 267


The answers are 143-b, 144-d. (Holmes, 3 e, pp 1081.) Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States. Infections of the cervix may present as a friable cervix, but are most often without signs or symptoms. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) caused by chlamydia often presents with milder symptoms than when it is caused by gonorrhea. Prompt treatment reduces the occurrence of long-term sequelae such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. The risk of infertility appears to be higher for chlamydial infections compared to any other STD. Screening women is important to reduce the risk of PID and its sequelae.


Characteristic intracellular inclusion bodies demonstrated by the DIF test cell culture yields Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D through K chlamydia also grown from maternal cervical swab. Discussion Chlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of preventable blindness its strains can be further differentiated into 18 serotypes by microimmunofluorescence tests. Serotypes A, B, Ba, and C are principally associated with endemic trachoma in developing countries serotypes D through K primarily cause sexually transmitted infections in adults and inclusion conjunctivitis and pneumonia in infants, transmitted through an infected birth canal and serotypes LI, L2, and L3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum.

Clinical Picture

Perianal Molluscum

Latency varies from several months to more than 10 years. The initial phase is characterized by fever, diarrhea, weight loss (wasting syndrome in 40-68 of cases), adenopathy, pruritus and other manifestations depending upon the level of cell-mediated immunosuppression. Many sexually transmitted diseases accompany AIDS gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, A, and non-A, non-B, pharyngitis, and chlamydial proctitis. In AIDS-related complex (ARC), neurologic or systemic illnesses appear, opportunist infections like oral candidiasis, multidermatomal herpes zoster, hairy cell leukoplasia, seborrheic dermatitis and retinal spots in cotton branches. Pre-existing dermatoses, like atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and Reiter's syndrome, deteriorate as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome becomes increasingly severe. When AIDS is established, the following can appear Kaposi's sarcoma (7-50 ) (Fig.58.1), Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin-lymphoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (74 ) that presents on...


The answer is c. (Fauci, 14 e, pp 803-804.) About half of all cases of nongonococcal urethritis are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Trichomonas vaginalis are rarer causes of urethritis. Herpes simplex would present with vesicular lesions and pain. C. psittaci is the eti-ologic agent in psittacosis.


Discussion Eighty percent of UTIs are caused by E. coir, Staphylococcus saprophytics is the second most common cause. Other causes, in order of frequency, arc Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, and Enterococcus Chlamydia and Neisseria are also causes of urethritis. Risk factors include female gender, sexual activity, pregnancy, obstruction, bladder dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux, and catheterization. JJU J p. 191

Sexual Abuse

The postmenarchal patient should be evaluated for pregnancy. If intercourse occurred, then specimens for acid phosphatase, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis should be collected, as should those for hepatitis B and HIV. The Wood's lamp may be used to search for evidence of semen if the sexual assault occurred within 72 hours of presentation. In rape - es,


Except when the organisms are directly implanted following abortion, pregnancy or surgery, the pathogens usually have ascended from the vagina. Thus, aerobic and anaerobic faecal flora and cervicovaginal flora (especially bacteroides and anaerobic Gram-negative cocci) are responsible for 50 of infections. Other organisms commonly involved include N. gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum. Treatment is with antibiotics, preferably tetracycline (doxycycline) and a cephalosporin (cefoxitin). Recently, quinolones have also been shown to be effective. If severe, gentamicin plus metronidazole or even imipenem may be indicated. In either event, doxycycline should also be given for up to two weeks to cover chlamydia. If poor compliance with such a regimen is anticipated, a single dose of azithromycin


Discussion Orchitis may be caused by bacterial infections such as Escherichia coh and other enterobacteria viral infections such as mumps STDs such as Chlamydia species or gonorrhea or pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mumps orchitis may give rise to sterility if bilateral.

Hsv Keratitis

Gram stain of swab reveals increased PMNs and no bacteria characteristic intracellular inclusion bodies demonstrated by the DIF test cell culture yields Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D-K chlamydia also grown from maternal cervical swab. Chlamydia trachomatis strains can be further differentiated into 18 serotypes by microimmunofluorescence tests. Serotypes A, B, Ba, and C are principally associated with endemic trachoma in developing countries serotypes D-K primarily cause sexually transmitted infections in adults and inclusion conjunctivitis and pneumonia in infants, transmitted through an infected birth canal serotypes LI, 12, and I_3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum.

Serologic Tests

The chlamydial complement fixation test (CFT), which measures antibody against group-specific lipopolysaccharide antigen, has, in the past, been widely used as an aid in the diagnosis of LGV and psittacosis, both of which elicit significant antibody responses as a result of systemic immune stimulation. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of the test is low in those chlamydial infections that are restricted to superficial epithelial surfaces only. Thus, while titers equal to or greater than 1 64 are regularly measured in the serum of patients with proven psittacosis or LGV, only 50 of patients with proven oculogenital infection have titers equal to or greater than 1 16. In uncomplicated genital tract infections such as acute urethritis or cervical infection, CFT reactor rates are usually even lower, with only 15 of men with urethritis and 40 of women with cervical infection having titers equal to or greater than 1 16.52 The microimmunofluorescence (micro-IF) test was initially developed for...


The objectives of antibiotic treatment are to reduce the pool of chlamydial infection in the community and the severity of active trachoma, and thus of the risk of blindness, in individual cases. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, other macrolides and azalides, and rifampin are effective against trachoma. Most control programs utilized topical tetracycline ointment from the 1950s to the mid-1990s. Antibiotic treatment in endemic communities (active trachoma in more than 20 of children) has been based on the supervised application of antibiotic to all persons in a community ( mass therapy ).20 Initial case control studies showed that oral azithromycin was as effective or better than topical oxytetracycline oint-ment.44-46 A subsequent trial of village-wide oral azithromycin (1 dose weekly for 3 weeks) compared to oxytetracyline ointment (1 dose daily for 42 days) in Egypt, Tanzania, and Gambia showed a substantial reduction of chlamydial infection by both treatments, but only a...

Antigen Detection

Two antigenic targets on chlamydiae, LPS and the MOMP, have been exploited commercially in the development of non-culture diagnostic tests. Chlamydial LPS is genus-specific, and antibodies to the LPS will cross-react with all members of the family Chlamydiaceae including human and other animal pathogens.46 Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests and some direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) tests detect chlamydial LPS. The EIA tests are designed to detect organisms in specimens obtained from the endocervix and can provide a result in approximately 20 minutes. In contrast, the DFA test requires a specialized fluorescence microscope but can be used to detect infection using slides prepared from endocervical, urethral, rectal, pharyngeal, and conjunctival specimens. The MOMP-based DFA is the only antigen test capable of identifying C. trachomatis. There is no doubt that there are both advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques. For example, DFA requires careful collection of...

Developmental Cycle

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle (Fig. 48-1). The cycle is initiated by the attachment of an infectious elementary body to the surface of a susceptible cell. The mechanism by which chlamydiae attach to the host cell has not been fully elucidated, though electrostatic and receptor interactions have been postulated.15,16 Once attached, the metabolically inactive elementary body (approximate size 350 nm in diameter) enters the cell by phagocytosis, but the resulting phagocytic vacuole does not fuse with primary lysosomes. The prevention of lysosomal fusion is thought to be mediated by chlamydial surface antigens and dependent on the presence of living elementary bodies, since heat-killed or antibody-treated organisms are rapidly sequestered into phagolysosomes.17 While in the phagocytic vacuole, the elementary body remains intact and undergoes reorganization to form, within 8 hours, what is known as the initial or reticulate body. This is a...


Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular prokaryotes with a small genome of approximately 1.2 megabases. Some strains of C. psittaci contain a plasmid.2 The family Chlamydiaceae has two genera Chlamydia with C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, and C. suis as species and Chlamydophila with C. abortus, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum, C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci as species. Chlamydophila psittaci has eight serovars, six of which have been isolated from birds (A through F) and two (WC and M 56) that have been isolated from mammals. Chlamydiae exhibit morphologic and structural similarities to gram-negative bacteria. The life cycle is initiated when an elementary body (the extracellular form) attaches to a susceptible epithelial cell. The elementary body then enters the epithelial cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis, where it undergoes reorganization into a much larger replicating form, the reticulate body. The reticulate body divides by binary fission to produce an ever-enlarging inclusion....

Neonatal Infections

Oral erythromycin in doses of 50 mg kg body weight per day in four divided doses for 10 to 14 days is the treatment of choice for both neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis and pneu-monia.56,57 Topical therapy for neonatal ocular infection is not recommended since it fails to eradicate chlamydial carriage in the nasopharynx, which can act as a source of infection of the lungs and reinfection of the conjunctiva. Unfortunately, ocular prophylaxis with silver nitrate, which is routinely given to prevent gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum in some countries, has no effect on acquisition of chlamydial conjunctival infection. In addition, prophylaxis with tetracycline eye ointment will prevent neonatal ocular infection but has little effect on prevention of neonatal pneumonia. All mothers of infants with C. trachomatis neonatal infections should be treated with an appropriate course of antichlamydial therapy and investigated for other sexually transmitted infections. Prenatal screening