Clinical Diagnosis Of Dementing Disorder

Dementia is a term which refers to a general mental deterioration 1 , The term has Latin roots. De is a prefix derived from Latin, signifying separation, cessation or contraction, and mens denotes mind 1,2 , Consequently, in dementia there is a contraction of the mind. Chronicity has generally been implicit in the term dementia. Although legal implications of what we now term dementia can be traced to Greek writings of Solon and Plato, the earliest known usage of the term dementia comes from...

Info

FAST, Functional Assessment Staging MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination * In subjects without other complicating illnesses who survive and progress to the subsequent deterioration stage. ** MMSE score from 13 . Estimates based in part on published data summarized in 20 . Copyright 1984 by Barry Reisberg MD. FAST, Functional Assessment Staging MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination * In subjects without other complicating illnesses who survive and progress to...

Dementia Some Controversial Issues

Esquirol began to distinguish between acute, chronic and senile dementia in 1814, and he regarded the last one as resulting from aging and consisting in a loss of the faculties of understanding. In 1906, Alois Alzheimer reported the case of a 51-year-old woman with cognitive impairment, hallucinations, delusions and focal symptoms, whose brain was found on post mortem to show plaques, tangles and arteriosclerotic changes. In the 8th edition of Kraepelin's Textbook, he coined the term...

Methods of Assessment

Neuropsychological tests are described comprehensively elsewhere. For details of test descriptions, the interested reader is recommended to consult textbooks (e.g. 8 ). Below, a short description of some standard tests is provided. The most well-known neuropsychological test batteries for global cognition are the original and the revised version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS 9 WAIS-R 6 ). The WAIS and WAIS-R have been translated to many European and other languages. The WAIS...

References

Esquirol J.E. (1845) A treatise on insanity. In Documentary History of Psychiatry. A Source Book on Historical Principles (Ed. C.E. Goshen), pp. 314-369, Lea and Blanchard, New York. 2. Caine E.D., Grossman H., Lyness J.M. (1995) Delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders and mental disorders due to a general medical condition. In Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (Eds H.I. Kaplan, B.J. Sadock), pp. 705-754, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 3. World Health Organization...

Dementia Diagnosis Progression and Retrogression

Reisberg has addressed a number of concepts in relation to dementia in his review. He begins with a history of the term dementia, from its Latin roots about 2000 years ago, and goes on to discuss the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease AD , in particular the functional decline as charted by the Functional Assessment Staging FAST procedure. He argues that the pattern of decline in AD is a reversal of neurodevelopment in childhood and refers to it as retrogenesis, implicating...

Reflections on Retrogenesis

Reisberg et al's excellent review on the clinical diagnosis of dementia presents a very powerful and lucid account of the idea of retrogenesis that he and his colleagues have developed over the last few years. In essence, this highlights the similarities between progression in Alzheimer's disease AD and reversal of development, such that in cognitive function, functional impairment, behaviour and social interactions, the more severely demented a patient becomes, the more similar he appears to...