Geographic Distributon

Dermatophytosis, especially tinea capitis, tinea corporis and tinea cruris, occurs worldwide but is very common in tropical countries. Ninety-eight percent of tinea capitis is seen in children there are occasional cases in adult women. From 3-28 of children from low social-economic groups have tinea capitis. Fa-vus is a tinea found only in Africa and South America. Tinea imbricata is endemic in the Pacific Islands, some parts of Malaysia, India and Latin America. Tinea cruris and tinea pedis...

Clinical Features

The cutaneous form has different geographic variants. It is caused by L. tropica, L. major and L. aethiopica in the Old World (Oriental sore) and in the New World it is caused by numerous species and subspecies, especially L. mexicana mexicana, L. m. amazonensis and L.(viannia) braziliensis. New and Old World forms are clinically similar, but New World infections are more severe and chronic. Both affect areas exposed to insect bites such as the face, trunk, and extremities. The incubation...

Treatment

The cause should be eliminated when it is identified. Control of stress favors improvement. Compresses of lead subacetate with equal parts of distilled or purified water, Burow's solution, oatmeal water or water with tobacco, drying powders like talcum and zinc oxide or a cream of neutral glycerite in starch are indicated. Erythromycin has been used as well as short courses of oral or topical glucocorticoids. PUVA is recommended in resistant cases, and pentoxyphillin, disodic chromoglycate, as...

Clinical Picture

The course of all the clinical varieties is chronic and unpredictable. Lesions can last months or years. In the absence of trauma, they usually resolve spontaneously without a scar. In the presence of lymphoma, in transplant recipients (15-87 ) (HPV-2 and -4 or -3 and -5) and in persons with AIDS, warts are more numerous, generalized, exuberant and resistant to treatment. They can simulate verruciform epidermodysplasia and become malignant. They can occur on any part of the skin but predominate...

Geographic Distribution

Candidiasis occurs worldwide it causes up to 25 of the superficial mycoses involving nails (35 ), skin (30 ), and the mucosae (20 ). There is no predilection for race, sex, or age. It affects 4-8 of newborns. Candida vulvovaginitis is more common between age 20-30 years of age, and is present in 20-30 of gynecological infections. Balanitis occurs in adult and elderly men. Oral candidiasis occurs in persons with immunoincompetence, in children under 10, and in the elderly. The intertrigous and...

Laboratory Data

Koh Chlorazol Black

Biopsy is not necessary except in deep mycosis. Superficial types show hyperkeratosis and keratinous follicular plugs. PAS or Gomori-Grocott stains show filaments in the horny layer. Neutrophils, vasodilatation and a mild to dense lymphohistiocytic infiltrate are seen. In kerion there are pustules or abscesses, and spores and or filaments can be found in the dermis. In the trichophytic granuloma, besides the presence of the parasite, giant and epithelioid cells are observed. A Wood's lamp is...

Etiology

There are three groups of dermatophytes Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton (there are 41 species, just 11 are common). The infections they cause are restricted to keratin-containing structures such as skin, hair and nails. There is a natural host defense to dermatophytes which depends on an antifungal serum factor whose existence is controversial, sebaceous secretion and acquired immune resistance. Dermatophytic infections can be transmissible from the environment (geophilic, M....

Ashy Dermatologist Treatment

The following have been used Antihistamines, vitamins, glucocorticoids, antibiotics, diaminodiohenylsulfone, isoniazid, griseofulvin, chloroquine, estrogens and placebo. Clofazimine 50-100 mg 3 times a week for 3-5 months yields the best results (Int J Dermatol 1989 28(3) 198-200). Fig. 65.4. Ashy dermatosis, histpathology (H.E. 20X). Fig. 65.4. Ashy dermatosis, histpathology (H.E. 20X). 1 Arenas R, Bautista M et al. Dermatosis cenicienta estudio de 8 pacientes...

Que Es Inllersion Repodral

Cutaneous leishmaniasis may heal spontaneously, yet the following treatments yield good results trivalent antimonials administered parenterally such as repodral and anthiomalin 2-3 ml 0.02-0.03 g on alternate days in 12-20 doses and the pentavalents like glucantime meglumine antimoniate 10-20 mg kg for 12 days to 3 weeks or until the lesions have healed. Another medication, pentostam sodium stibogluconate 20 mg kg day may be given for 20 days. For cutaneous disease antimonials may be injected...

Trichinosis

Rafael Herrera-Esparza and Esperanza Avalos-Diaz This is a parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spiralis filum nematode, aphasmidia class, superfamily Trichinelloidea . The family has eight groups of genes T1-T8 and at least four of them can be identified in a species. The genome of the parasite is composed of six haploid chromosomes with a total of 2.4 x 10-8 pb Parasitol Today 1992 8 299-306 . The larval morphology varies according to the five stages of postembryonic development. At birth...