Clinical Picture

The dermatitis of pellagra is bilateral and symmetric. It involves sunlight exposed skin, such as the face, neck, dorsum of the hands and feet. It is characterized by intense erythema, edema, burning, blisters and subsequently scaling, skin thickening and dark brown pigmentation. Lesions about the lower neck form a collarette of dermatitis, and are called Casal's necklace (Fig. 59.1). The dermatitis can be generalized. There can be maceration in folds and ulcerative areas. Follicular...

Penicilliosis Due to Penicillium marneffei

Penicillium marneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus that is thought to be endemic to southeast Asia (Am J Trop Med Hyg 1984 33 637-644) and southern China (Rev Infect Dis 1988 10 640-652.). It is capable of causing life-threatening disseminated illness involving the skin, bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, bones and lungs in immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons. Penicillio-sis, previously a rare disease, has now emerged as one of the most common systemic opportunistic infection among...

Clinical Features

One of the first indications of infestation is intense itching. Pruritus indicates infestation of about two months' duration. The lice are difficult to see in clean individuals who have only a minor infestation. Yet they can be abundant and easily, seen in malnourished individuals with poor hygiene. Nits can be confused with dandruff and may be distinguished from it with a magnifying glass. Also dandruff falls from the hair easily whereas nits firmly attach to it. It should...

Treatment

Gram Stain Bronchial Brush Cell

No treatment completely eradicates latent infection. Treatment is symptomatic and prophylactic. In some cases the psychological factor is important. A placebo can decrease the frequency of recurrences 50 . Some medications decrease the course, but they do not reduce the frequency of recurrences except when administered continuously. On the skin, compresses of chamomile tea are suggested, and also lead or aluminum acetate, or other drying antiseptics. Drying powders like zinc oxide can be...

Geographic Distributon

Dermatophytosis, especially tinea capitis, tinea corporis and tinea cruris, occurs worldwide but is very common in tropical countries. Ninety-eight percent of tinea capitis is seen in children there are occasional cases in adult women. From 3-28 of children from low social-economic groups have tinea capitis. Fa-vus is a tinea found only in Africa and South America. Tinea imbricata is endemic in the Pacific Islands, some parts of Malaysia, India and Latin America. Tinea cruris and tinea pedis...

Geographic Distribution

Candidiasis occurs worldwide it causes up to 25 of the superficial mycoses involving nails (35 ), skin (30 ), and the mucosae (20 ). There is no predilection for race, sex, or age. It affects 4-8 of newborns. Candida vulvovaginitis is more common between age 20-30 years of age, and is present in 20-30 of gynecological infections. Balanitis occurs in adult and elderly men. Oral candidiasis occurs in persons with immunoincompetence, in children under 10, and in the elderly. The intertrigous and...

Laboratory Data

Koh Chlorazol Black

Biopsy is not necessary except in deep mycosis. Superficial types show hyperkeratosis and keratinous follicular plugs. PAS or Gomori-Grocott stains show filaments in the horny layer. Neutrophils, vasodilatation and a mild to dense lymphohistiocytic infiltrate are seen. In kerion there are pustules or abscesses, and spores and or filaments can be found in the dermis. In the trichophytic granuloma, besides the presence of the parasite, giant and epithelioid cells are observed. A Wood's lamp is...

Etiology

There are three groups of dermatophytes Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton (there are 41 species, just 11 are common). The infections they cause are restricted to keratin-containing structures such as skin, hair and nails. There is a natural host defense to dermatophytes which depends on an antifungal serum factor whose existence is controversial, sebaceous secretion and acquired immune resistance. Dermatophytic infections can be transmissible from the environment (geophilic, M....

Ashy Dermatologist Treatment

The following have been used Antihistamines, vitamins, glucocorticoids, antibiotics, diaminodiohenylsulfone, isoniazid, griseofulvin, chloroquine, estrogens and placebo. Clofazimine 50-100 mg 3 times a week for 3-5 months yields the best results (Int J Dermatol 1989 28(3) 198-200). Fig. 65.4. Ashy dermatosis, histpathology (H.E. 20X). Fig. 65.4. Ashy dermatosis, histpathology (H.E. 20X). 1 Arenas R, Bautista M et al. Dermatosis cenicienta estudio de 8 pacientes...

Que Es Inllersion Repodral

Cutaneous leishmaniasis may heal spontaneously, yet the following treatments yield good results trivalent antimonials administered parenterally such as repodral and anthiomalin 2-3 ml 0.02-0.03 g on alternate days in 12-20 doses and the pentavalents like glucantime meglumine antimoniate 10-20 mg kg for 12 days to 3 weeks or until the lesions have healed. Another medication, pentostam sodium stibogluconate 20 mg kg day may be given for 20 days. For cutaneous disease antimonials may be injected...

Trichinosis

Rafael Herrera-Esparza and Esperanza Avalos-Diaz This is a parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spiralis filum nematode, aphasmidia class, superfamily Trichinelloidea . The family has eight groups of genes T1-T8 and at least four of them can be identified in a species. The genome of the parasite is composed of six haploid chromosomes with a total of 2.4 x 10-8 pb Parasitol Today 1992 8 299-306 . The larval morphology varies according to the five stages of postembryonic development. At birth...