Chemical Analysis of Urine

Chemical urinalysis is performed to identify or evaluate the bilirubin, blood (whole blood and hemoglobin), glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrate, pH level, protein, and urobilinogen in the urine. Chemical analysis of the urine provides health practitioners with information about the patient's kidney and liver function, carbohydrate metabolism, and acid-base balance. Chemical tests use reagent strips, also called dipsticks, to identify the presence and concentration of the labeled...

Microscopic Analysis of Urine

Urine Micro Cope Cells

Microscopic urinalysis uses a microscope to examine urine sediment that contains cells, casts, crystals, and microorganisms. In some laboratories, microscopic analysis may not be part of the routine urinalysis, but may be performed only when physical and chemical screening tests yield positive results. Microscopic urinalysis provides information that may be diagnos-tically significant. An early morning, clean-catch specimen is the most accurate urine specimen for microscopic examination. The...

Physical Analysis of Urine

Routine urinalysis examines the physical properties of urine such as clarity, color, odor, and specific gravity. Variations in these physical characteristics may be indicative of renal or metabolic disorders. However, many things can impact the urine's physical characteristics, such as diet and the manner in which the specimen is handled and stored. In order to assure accuracy, the sample should be analyzed immediately. Urine samples that cannot be analyzed within one hour of collection must be...