Glucose Tolerance Test GTT Standard Oral Glucose Tolerance Test SOGTT

The glucose tolerance test is a timed test of the glucose concentration in both the blood and urine. This test is used to confirm or rule out diabetes and is a definitive test for diagnosing hypoglycemia. After fasting overnight, the client is given a concentrated amount of glucose dissolved in a flavored, water-based drink. Blood and urine samples are collected over a three- to four-hour period. In health, the insulin response is immediate and in sufficient quantity to tolerate the glucose...

Electroencephalography EEG

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a diagnostic test that measures and records the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. EEG is performed to diagnose diseases and disorders of the brain, to monitor cerebral blood flow during surgical procedures such as carotid endarterectomy, and to determine brain death. There are no contraindications for this test. Electroencephalography is usually performed in a room that is protected from outside interference. It can, however, be done at the patient's...

Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF Tests

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a secretion of the choroid plexus, specialized tangled masses of capillaries located in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles of the brain. CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that flows through the ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space, and the spaces associated with the spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is often defined as the fluid shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord. In addition to cushioning these structures from shock, CSF helps transport...

Uric Acid

Uric acid is a product that is formed by the breakdown of nucleic acids. Most uric acid is excreted by the kidneys and some is excreted by the gastrointestinal tract. The main purpose of the uric acid test is to diagnose gout, a condition in which uric acid settles in tissues and joints, particularly joints of the big toe. The uric acid test is also used to monitor the treatment of gout. Women 2.0-6.6 mg dl Children 2.5-5.5 mg dl Variations from Normal. Hyperuricemia, increased uric acid in the...

Blood Groups ABO Red Cell Groups

Human blood is grouped according to the presence or absence of specific antigens that are found on the surface of red blood cells. The ABO system is the major human blood group system that is used to type or group blood according to the antigens present on the red blood cell. Group A blood has A antigens, group B blood has B antigens, group AB blood has both antigens, and group O blood has neither antigen. In addition to the blood group antigens, blood group antibodies are present in human...

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is an endoscopic examination of the full length of the large intestine from the anus to the ileocecal valve. A flexible fiberoptic colono-scope, which is inserted via the anus, allows the physician to examine the mucosa of the entire colon and the terminal ileum. The patient is sedated with intravenous medication and, once the colonoscope is in place, air is injected to expand the bowel and allow for better visualization of the large intestine. Figure 12-3 is a sample colonoscopy...

Microscopic Testing of Feces

Microscopic testing of feces is performed to identify the presence of leukocytes, fats, and parasites. It may be used as a screening test or to support the findings of other diagnostic interventions. A microscopic stool test for leukocytes, especially neutrophils and monocytes, is performed as an initial evaluation for diarrhea of unknown etiology. Although the presence of leukocytes can help determine the cause of diarrhea, there are many types of diarrhea that do not exhibit an increase in...

Cystoscopy

Bladder Exam With Scope

Cystoscopy, an endoscopic examination of the urethra, urinary bladder, ureteral orifices, and the male prostatic urethra, is the most commonly used urological diagnostic procedure. It permits the examination of the lower urinary tract, which often cannot be visualized with other diagnostic tools. Prior to scope insertion, an antiseptic agent is applied to the external genitalia and a local anesthetic jelly is placed into the urethra. There may be circumstances that require general anesthesia....

Heart Cardiac Scans

Heart (cardiac) scans included in this section are the thallium stress tests, assessments of coronary perfusion and the multigated acquisition (MUGA) scan, a technique used to evaluate heart function and wall motion. Each of these tests provides valuable diagnostic information about heart structure and function without surgical intervention. The advent of cardiac scanning techniques has given clinicians important tools for the identification of heart disease. Thallium stress tests are...

Metabolic Tests

The metabolic processes of the body result in the production and elimination of a variety of waste products known as metabolic end products. Frequently performed metabolic end product tests include bilirubin, a waste product of hemolysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN), a test that measures plasma urea, the nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism creatinine, the waste product formed in the muscles and uric acid, a waste product derived from the breakdown of nucleic acids. Analyzing plasma...

Blood Urea Nitrogen BUN

The BUN test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea, the end product of protein metabolism, contains nitrogen, is formed in the liver, carried via the blood to the kidneys, filtered in the glomerulus, and subsequently excreted. Blood urea nitrogen is directly related to the metabolic function of the liver and the excretory functions of the kidneys. This test is used as a gross indicator of glomerular ability to filter urea from the blood. While nearly all kidney diseases cause...

Very LowDensity Lipoprotein VLDL Low Density Lipoprotein LDL

Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) are plasma proteins composed primarily of triglycerides and small amounts of cholesterol. The VLDLs transport triglycerides from the liver to the peripheral tissue. The breakdown of VLDLs is a major source of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), which are cholesterol-rich plasma proteins. Increased levels of very-low-density lipoprotein is accompanied by increased levels of low-density lipoproteins. Very-low-density lipoproteins are associated with...

Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy, also known as peritoneoscopy, permits direct visual examination of the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and spleen parietal and visceral peritoneum and other abdominal organs, tissues, and fluids by way of a rigid laparoscope or peritoneoscope. The scope is introduced into the abdominal cavity through a small surgical incision usually in the umbilical area. The laparoscope often includes a camera system that transmits pictures of the scope's view to a color monitor. Laparoscopy is a...

Postprandial Blood Sugar PPBS Two Hour Postprandial Blood Sugar 2hour PPBS

While many practitioners use the fasting blood sugar test results as a primary screen for diabetes mellitus, the postprandial blood sugar test (PPBS) is often used to confirm the diagnosis. Prior to the test the client fasts overnight and then consumes a meal that contains approximately 100 grams of carbohydrates, or drinks a special 100-gram carbohydrate drink. Two hours after eating, a venous blood sample is drawn and analyzed. The purpose of the PPBS test is to assess the body's response to...

Chemical Testing of Feces

Chemical testing of feces is performed to detect the presence of occult blood, carbohydrates, bile, and trypsin. Screening for occult blood is the most common chemical test of feces and has been successfully used as an early detection test for colorectal cancer. However, there are may other abnormal conditions of the colon and rectum associated with occult fecal blood. Specimens for occult blood are usually collected by the patient at home, using a test kit obtained from the health...

Chemical Analysis of Urine

Chemical urinalysis is performed to identify or evaluate the bilirubin, blood (whole blood and hemoglobin), glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrate, pH level, protein, and urobilinogen in the urine. Chemical analysis of the urine provides health practitioners with information about the patient's kidney and liver function, carbohydrate metabolism, and acid-base balance. Chemical tests use reagent strips, also called dipsticks, to identify the presence and concentration of the labeled...

Physical Analysis of Urine

Routine urinalysis examines the physical properties of urine such as clarity, color, odor, and specific gravity. Variations in these physical characteristics may be indicative of renal or metabolic disorders. However, many things can impact the urine's physical characteristics, such as diet and the manner in which the specimen is handled and stored. In order to assure accuracy, the sample should be analyzed immediately. Urine samples that cannot be analyzed within one hour of collection must be...

Electrolyte Tests

The term electrolyte refers to the positively (+) or negatively (-) charged particles called ions. Electrolytes are present in the body's extracellular fluid, fluid outside the cells that includes blood serum or plasma, and in the body's interstitial fluid, the fluid in the space between cells. Electrolytes are also found in the intracellular fluid, the fluid within the cell itself. In blood chemistry studies, electrolytes generally refer to the four plasma ions sodium, potassium, chloride, and...

Gastrointestinal Radiography

Gastrointestinal radiography includes the examination of the GI tract from the esophagus to the rectum. These studies use barium or an iodinated contrast medium. Since barium interferes with iodinated tests, GI studies that use barium as the contrast are usually scheduled after procedures that use iodine. The gastrointestinal radiography studies are presented according to the anatomical location of the structures being studied. Examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract and small...

Alanine Aminotransferase ALT Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase SGPT

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), is an enzyme that behaves as a catalyst in various bodily functions. This enzyme is found predominantly in liver cells, with lower concentrations present in the heart, muscle, and kidney. Since ALT is so closely associated with the liver, variations in serum levels are used to diagnose liver disease and to monitor treatments for hepatitis or other liver disorders. Infant Newborn May be twice as high as...

Sputum Culture

Sputum is strictly defined as matter ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs through the mouth. Spit and saliva are not synonymous with sputum. Indications for sputum culture are suspected diagnoses of pneumonia identification of the cause of respiratory infections a confirmed tuberculosis diagnosis and monitoring of the effectiveness of treatment for respiratory conditions, particularly tuberculosis. Growth of a pathogen in a sputum culture can provide a definitive diagnosis. Sputum...

Evoked Brain Response Studies

Evoked brain-response studies, also called sensory evoked brain potentials, focus on the changes or responses of cerebral electrical activity that are evoked by the stimulation of a sensory pathway. While electroencephalography measures spontaneous electrical activity, the sensory-evoked brain potential studies measure and record brain wave activity produced in response to a specific stimulus. Evoked brain potential or response studies include the following visual-evoked response (VER),...

Gallbladder and Biliary System Radiography

The gallbladder and biliary system consists of the gallbladder and cystic duct right and left hepatic ducts, which come together as the common hepatic duct and the common bile duct, which is formed when the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct join. The common bile duct empties into the duodenum. Figure 10-3 reviews the anatomy of the bile duct system. Several radiography studies, all using contrast media, are available for the examination of the gallbladder and biliary tree....

Prostate Ultrasonography

Prostate ultrasonography, also called transrectal or rectal ultrasound, is an ultrasound study of the prostate gland. This procedure is used to examine the size, shape, texture, and position of the prostate gland and its tissue, and to diagnose abnormal conditions. Prostate ultrasonography is also used to guide the physician in performing prostate biopsy, and placing radioactive seeds into the prostate gland for cancer treatment. Prior to prostate ultrasonography, the patient may be placed on...

Creatine Kinase CK Creatine Phosphokinase CPK

Creatine kinase (CK), also called creatine phosphokinase (CPK), is an enzyme that is found primarily in heart and skeletal muscles, and to a lesser extent in the brain. It is the main cardiac enzyme studied in patients with heart disease. Creatine kinase can be divided into three chemically distinct forms called isoenzymes CK-BB (CK,), CK-MB (CK2), and CK-MM (CK3). The isoenzymes are associated with specific organs, organ damage, and diagnoses. CK-BB is linked to brain tissue and the...

Microscopic Analysis of Urine

Urine Microorganism

Microscopic urinalysis uses a microscope to examine urine sediment that contains cells, casts, crystals, and microorganisms. In some laboratories, microscopic analysis may not be part of the routine urinalysis, but may be performed only when physical and chemical screening tests yield positive results. Microscopic urinalysis provides information that may be diagnos-tically significant. An early morning, clean-catch specimen is the most accurate urine specimen for microscopic examination. The...

Scrotal Scan

A scrotal scan, also known as a testicular scan, is a radionuclide study of the contents of the scrotal sac, including the testes, epididymis, and spermatic cord. Indications for scrotal scans are assessment of acute pain and swelling of the testicles, evaluation of scrotal and testicular damage caused by trauma or injury, and identification of abnormalities of the scrotum and its contents. The patient is placed in a supine position and the radionuclide is administered intravenously. The penis...

Case Studies On Haemoglobin Tests

Robert Sanders is a 26-year-old sexually active single male. Although he does not feel he has syphilis, his physician is concerned and has ordered a VDRL. Would a positive VDRL prompt the physician to order other tests Is so, what are the tests and what do they measure or identify Under what conditions might there be a biological false-positive result 2. Dr. Samson is seeing a patient who she suspects has a streptococcal infection. The physician has ordered ASO and ABD tests. What are these...

Streptococcal Antibody Tests

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci are nonmotile bacteria that can occur in pairs or chains. These bacteria are responsible for a variety of diseases ranging from streptococcal sore throat to scarlet fever. Impetigo, pyoderma, otitis media, wound infections, and rheumatic fever are also associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Acute infections are best diagnosed by direct streptococcal cultures. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci produce several enzymes streptolysin O,...

Amniotic Fluid Tests

Amniotic fluid serves several purposes including protecting the fetus from shock, controlling embryonic and fetal body temperature, and allowing free movement of the developing fetus within the amniotic sac. Analysis of amniotic fluid provides diagnostic information about fetal well-being and fetal maturation. Indications for amniotic fluid tests are family or parental genetic disorders, mental retardation, chromosome or enzyme anomalies, or inherited blood disorders. Advanced maternal age, at...

Kidneys Ureters Bladder KUB Radiography

Kidneys, ureters, and bladder KUB radiography is an examination of the abdomen. This study is also called a scout film and is often used early in the assessment of abdominal complaints. The KUB is performed to demonstrate the size, shape, and location of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Other intra-abdominal diseases can be identified using KUB films. The only contraindication for this study is pregnancy. Normal Findings. Normal abdominal structures no evidence of calculi normal GI gas...

Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow Scan

A cerebrospinal fluid flow scan, also called cisternography or cisterno-gram, is a radionuclide study that demonstrates the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid CSF flow and reabsorption. Altered cerebrospinal fluid flow or reabsorption patterns indicate abnormalities of the brain. The cerebrospinal fluid flow scan can be used to determine the placement and patency of a shunt when treating hydrocephalus. After the radionuclide has been injected into the spinal column via lumbar puncture, the patient...

Skin Culture

Skin cultures include samples taken from the skin, nail, and hair. Although many microorganisms exist in low numbers on the skin of a healthy person, skin cultures are used to identify organisms that cause integumentary infections such as cellulitis, pyoderma, impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, and carbuncles. Fungal diseases such as athlete's foot, ringworm, rashes with well-defined borders, and tinea cruris jock itch are often evaluated via skin culture. Specimen collection methods are...