How to Care for Your Natural Eyelashes

Accessory Structures Of The

The site of accessory structures of the eye are as follows eyebrows, eyelashes, eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus. b. Eyelashes. Eyelashes are a row of hairs which project from the border of each eyelid. Eyelashes coming from the upper eyelid are usually long and turn upward eyelashes from the lower eyelid are generally short and turn downward. Sebaceous glands at the base of eyelash hair follicles pour a lubricating fluid into the follicles. When these glands become infected, a sty forms.

The school nurse refers a firstgrade student to you because of nits in the childs hair

Treatment for P. corporis (body lice) is permethrin cream. If the eyelashes are infested with lice petrolatum should be applied to alleviate the problem. P. capitis (head lice) is treated with permethrin 1 cream rinse. Nits can be removed from the hair with a fine-tooth comb. Treatment for P. pubis is application of a pyrethrin shampoo. In addition, clothes, bed linens, and towels must be laundered in hot water for all types of lice.

Pathogenesis And Immunity

Macrophages are frequently found in the epithelium and in the follicles themselves. Plasma cells appear to be distributed throughout the conjunctiva. Between the follicles, there is marked lymphocytic infiltration. In addition, the capillaries are dilated, and the whole conjunctival layer is thickened by the cellular infiltration with the formation of papillary villi. As scarring takes place, islands of epithelium between the elevated papillae may become trapped and form epithelial-lined cysts, which fill with desquamated debris to form yellow structures, clinically identified as post-trachomatous degeneration. Progressive scarring produces inward deformation of the lid margins with inturned eyelashes (trichiasis and entropion),

Acute Intermittent Porphyria

PE White hair, including eyelashes and eyebrows eye exam shows nystagmus and poor development of macula with blue iris poor visual acuity (20 350) skin is pink-white with lack of pigmentation throughout body numerous actinic (solar) keratoses on face and scalp as well as on dorsum of hands ulcerated lesion with indurated edges on dorsum of hand with hyper-pigmentation.

Clinical Features

Pubic lice cause severe pruritus that is difficult to ignore. Examination reveals the black powder-like louse feces as well as mites firmly adherent to hair in the pubic and abdominal areas. Small blue-black dots caused by the irritating secretion of the lice's bite (macula cerulea) are characteristic. In hirsute individuals infestation may spread to the perianal and gluteal area, axilla, chest, back and umbilicus. It may also involve the beard and mustache. Children can become infested by sleeping with their parents or other affected people, not necessarily by sexual transmission. In children the common areas of involvement are the eyebrows and eyelashes (pediculosis ciliaris). It can cause blepharoconjuntivitis with epitheliopathy (Br J Ophtalmol 1993 77 81516), as well as other ocular inflammations. The patient has intense pruritus, burning or pain. (Arch Dermatol 1973 107 916-17).


PE Leonine fades (thickened facial and forehead skin) loss of eyebrows and eyelashes (madarosis) scleral nodules depressed nasal bridge (saddle-nose deformity) gynecomastia testicular atrophy, numerous symmetrical, hypopigmented macules with vague edges and erythematous, smooth, shiny surfaces skin plaques and nodules partial loss of pinprick and temperature sensation (i myesthesia) no anhidrotic changes symmetrically enlarged ulnar and common peroneal nerves.

Clinical Picture

There are two totally different polar types of leprosy (Rabello Jr, 1938) lepromatous leprosy (LL), and tuberculoid leprosy (TT) as well as two groups of cases indeterminate (I) and borderline (BL, BB, BT). Lepromatous leprosy is the progressive, systemic type, relatively transmissible, and it does not resolve spontaneously. It affects the skin and mucosae as diffusely infiltrating nodules. It also affects peripheral nerves and all organs and systems except the central nervous system. It is characterized by depressed cellular immunity that manifests as a negative lepromin skin test (Mitsuda's test) at three weeks the humoral response is normal. Lepromatous leprosy has two clinical forms nodular and diffuse. The nodular form is characterized by nodules, erythematous infiltrating plaques and hypopigmentation (Fig. 21.1). In the mucosa there is a lepromatous rhinitis that is associated with perforation of the cartilaginous nasal septum causing the so-called saddle nose. There is partial...

Surgical Technique

Tetracaine followed by a retrobulbar or subTenon injection with 3-5 cc of 2 mepivacaine, preferably with 150 IE of hyaluronidase added to the anesthetic solution for better diffusion in the retrobulbar space. Since an eye with en-dophthalmitis is inflamed and often painful one should wait at least 5 min to let the anesthetic work. Disinfect the eyelid, lashes, and periocu-lar skin with 10 povidone iodine swabs, starting with the eyelid followed by the lashes and skin. Make certain that the eyelid margins and lashes are swabbed, and proceed in a systematic fashion, from the medial to the temporal aspect. Place a sterile ophthalmic drape over the eye to isolate the operation field before placing a lid speculum. Instill two drops of 5 povidone iodine ophthalmic solution in the eye and wait for 2 min. Wearing gloves, create a stab incision with a 0.6 mm (23-gauge) MVR blade 4 mm posterior to the limbus at the temporal superior part of the eye, stabilizing the eye with Barraquer-Trout-man...

Risk Factors

Conjunctival scarring acquired in childhood has caused gradual contraction of the lid margins producing inturned lashes (trichiasis and entropion) from the lower lid, which abrade the cornea. FIGURE 47-3 Trachomatous trichiasis. Conjunctival scarring acquired in childhood has caused gradual contraction of the lid margins producing inturned lashes (trichiasis and entropion) from the lower lid, which abrade the cornea.


In the upper eyelids, the usual problem is excessive skin. This skin excess can be quite extensive and will result in redundant folds of skin that cover the lid itself and sometimes even the eyelashes. The excess appears to be the result of actual stretching of the skin as well as a lowering of the position of the eyebrows due to gravitational forces and the downward pull of the muscles that cause frowning. Redundant upper eyelid skin produces a tired or sad look to the eye and reduces the apparent size of the eyes. Women with excessive upper eyelid skin find it difficult to apply eye makeup because the redundant fold of skin covers the platform of eyelid skin. Additional fullness of the upper lids may be caused by bulging orbital fat pads, as often occurs in the lower lids.

Pubic Lice

Tear Drop Shape Mites Skin

Pubic lice, Phthirus pubis, are small, macroscopic parasites that are generally sexually transmitted, annoying, and medically trivial. Fomites also are known to transmit lice. Also called ''crabs,'' these organisms localize to the pubic hair and eyelashes, and these are distinct from head lice.