Freeze Injury Of

Freeze injury is exposure of the product to a temperature below the freezing point which results in formation of ice crystals and tissue injury. The extent of freeze injury will vary with the item, length of exposure, and temperature to which the product is exposed. b. Loss of Color. A loss of color indicates freeze injury. Loss of color usually results in a glassy or transparent appearance. c. Texture. Textural changes include softening and a water-soaked appearance. Usually, the...

CSpoilage of Fruit Juices

The lactobacilli are important in the spoilage of fruit juices. Some strains are quite acid tolerant and can metabolize citric and malic acid. This reduces the acidity and results in a bland, rather flat flavor and a loss in astringency. A buttermilk flavor results in the fruit juice. (2) Slimy consistency. Bacteria of the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides produces a slimy, unpleasant consistency of fruit juices. (3) Fermentation. Yeasts contaminate and ferment...

Enzymatic Degradation

Deterioration of foods resulting from the catalytic action of enzymes is easy to observe. (1) An example is the ripening process of the banana wherein it becomes sweeter, softer, less astringent in taste, and more odorous. One of the reactions in this process is the hydrolysis (degradation) of the starch (essentially tasteless and insoluble in the water of the banana) to simple water-soluble sugars. (2) Another example is the overripe tomato. Here the softening is...

Mechanical Damage Of Fresh Fruits And Vegetables

Mechanical damage is due to the action of machinery, mishandling, and or improper packaging, and may result in cuts, punctures, bruises, and or abrasions. The fleshy fruits are very susceptible to mechanical damage. Product texture may be soft around any cut, puncture, or abrasion. Both internal and external examination of the product may be necessary to determine the extent of mechanical damage. b. Darkening in Color. The following color change may indicate mechanical damage a...

Microbial Spoilage

From the moment fish are taken from the water, a series of deteriorative changes start to occur which eventually will render the fish unmarketable. Since these changes occur relatively rapidly, fish are probably the most perishable of all flesh foods. Microbiological action produces the most extensive of the deteriorative changes. b. Product Examination by the Inspector. Examine the product and note abnormal color s , odor s , and or texture s typical of...

Health Hazards In Semiperishable Subsistence

Determine the existence of any potential health hazard, based upon the type and amount of product deterioration. A health hazard is defined as any subsistence that could harm a person's health and or well-being. b. Oxidative Rancidity. If this condition is present in severe quantities, a potential health hazard may exist. For a discussion on the potential health hazard of oxidative rancidity in foods, see paragraph 1-14. c. Microbial Spoilage. Depending upon the microorganisms...

Exercises Lesson

The following exercises are to be answered by marking the lettered response that best answers the question or best completes the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises at the end of the exercises and check your answers. For each incorrect answer, reread the material referenced after the answer. 1. Under storage conditions which foster a moist meat surface, spoilage is due to...

Discolorationdarkening

Examine the product for discoloration darkening. b. Sources of Discoloration. Discoloration darkening may be due to hydrolysis reactions, surface evaporation, or microbial spoilage. c. Other Sources. The inspector may find other deteriorative conditions such as dehydration or microbial spoilage in determining discoloration in meat and meat products. d. Surface Discolorations. The following surface discolorations may be observed in meat and meat products. 1 Browning. A brownish...

Nonenzymatic Browning

Nonenzymatic browning is a process in which foods darken without the catalytic effect of enzymes. It differs markedly from the darkening of fresh fruits and vegetables due to enzymatic degradation. The food constituents responsible are certain simple sugars which react with proteins, amino acids, or other substances normally present in the foods. b. Flavor Change in Some Foods. Although the darkening in color of the food may be undesirable, the more notable changes are...