There are four kinds of heat-induced flavor alterations: cooked or sulfurous, heated or rich, caramelized, and scorched.
a. From Pasteurization. Pasteurization imparts a slight cooked or sulfurous flavor to milk. The flavor is more pronounced if higher temperatures are used.
b. From Refrigerator Storage. A rich or heated flavor results after milk has been stored at refrigerator temperatures for several days.
c. From an Autoclave. Retorted and autoclaved milk often has a caramelized flavor.
d. From High Temperature Processing. A scorched flavor can result from exceptionally large amounts of "burn on" in a heat exchanger. This flavor also occurs in dry milk powders subjected to abnormally high temperature processing.
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