a. Definition. This group of flavors includes those flavors that either cannot be attributed to a specific cause or cannot be specifically defined in sensory terms.
b. Absorbed Flavor. The term absorbed is applied to those flavors (odors) that are absorbed from the environment. The evidence indicates that fat-soluble substances, such as turpentine, are absorbed readily. The milking and milk storage areas should be kept free of these odors.
c. Astringent Flavor. The term astringent has been used to describe a dry, puckery oral sensation which involves the sense of touch or feel rather than taste. Astringency has been associated with milk products that have been processed at high temperatures.
d. Bitter Flavor. This flavor is often caused by proteolysis, which can form amino acids having a bitter flavor. Bitter flavor may be caused by lipolysis or by cows eating certain weeds, such as bitterweed.
e. Chalky Flavor. Chalky flavor has been described as a sensation suggesting finely divided, insoluble powder particles. This flavor may be due to improper pasteurization and homogenization procedures.
f. Chemical Flavors. Chemical flavors are caused by contamination of milk with chemicals associated with cleaners, sanitizers, and disinfectants. Chemical flavors may be transferred to milk indirectly from food contact surfaces, packaging materials, or residues of substances used on food equipment.
g. Flat Flavor. This defect is characterized by a lack of flavor and a tactile sensation of thinness.
h. Foreign Flavor. This flavor is normally referred to as abnormal flavor.
i. Lack of Freshness. This term is used to describe milk that does not have the complete, pleasing taste of high-quality fresh milk.
j. Salty Flavor. This defect is identified easily by tasting. It is most commonly in milk from cows in late lactation and occasionally from milk of cows with mastitis.
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