Solutions To Exercises Lesson

1. Food deterioration. A series of continuous degradative changes occurring in a food item which may affect the products' wholesomeness, result in a reduction of its quality, and/or its serviceability. (para 1-2a)

2. Food spoilage. An arbitrary end-point of the deterioration process which denotes that a food item is unwholesome and therefore is no longer suitable for human consumption. (para 1-2e)

3. Abnormal. A sensory evaluation term that refers to those characteristics exhibited by a food item which is judged to differ from the normal characteristics. It does not lie within the permissible variations possessed by high-quality like items.

4. Quality. A term that refers to the degree of excellence or grade of a product. ( para 1 -2c)

5. Wholesomeness. A term that refers to freedom from pathogenic or otherwise harmful microorganisms. (para 1-2b)

6. Serviceability. A term that refers to the usefulness of a food item. (para 1-2d)

7. Adulteration. An act or process, either intentional or unintentional, of making a food impure. (para 1-2g)

8. Color. Odor. Texture.

9. Closed-package inspection. An inspection of the product's packaging and packing materials for evidence of a deterioration condition. (para 1-4a)

10. Open-package inspection. An evaluation of a food component for evidence of a deteriorative condition. (para 1-4b)

11. Microorganisms. Action of enzymes. Chemical reactions. Physical changes. Time.

Insects and/or rodents. (para 1-5)

12. Chlorophyll, solanine. (para 1-9f(3))

13. Color--white to pale amber. Texture--dry and shriveled. Taste--tasteless, stale. (para 1-13a)

14. Holes and voids causing the light to be reflected differently. (para 1-13b(2))

15. Oxidative Rancidity--oxidation of unsaturated fats.

Hydrolytic Rancidity--splitting of fatty acids, sometimes in the presence of lipolytic enzymes.

Ketonic Rancidity--Growth of microorganisms. (para 1-14)

16. Growth of bacteria. (para 1-15b)

17. Bacterial growth. Oxidized flavor.

Hydrolytic rancidity. (figure 1-1)

18. Rancidity. Browning.

Lactose crystallization. Mold growth. (figure 1-1)

19. Rancidity.

Protein denaturation. Color change. Freezer burn. Toughening. (figure 1-1)

20. Browning. Rancidity. Loss of color. Loss of texture.

Loss of nutrients. (figure 1-2)

21. Loss of flavor. Loss of texture. Loss of color.

Loss of nutrients. (figure 1-2)

24. a. Calcium lactate deposits.

b. Tyrosine deposits.

c. Tartrate (argol) crystals.

d. Struvite crystals. (para 1-22)

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