Direct Discharge to a Sewage Treatment Works

Municipal sewage treatment facilities are capable of treating a certain quantity of organic substances and should be able to deal with certain peak loads. However, certain components found in dairy waste streams may present problems. One such substance is fat, which adheres to the walls of the main system and causes sedimentation problems in the sedimentation tanks. Some form of onsite pretreatment is, therefore, advisable to minimize the fat content of the industrial wastewater that can be...

Wastewater Characteristics

Effluents from slaughterhouses and packing houses are usually heavily loaded with solids, floatable matter (fat), blood, manure, and a variety of organic compounds originating from proteins. As already stated the composition of effluents depends very much on the type of production and facilities. The main sources of water contamination are from lairage, slaughtering, hide or hair removal, paunch handling, carcass washing, rendering, trimming, and cleanup operations. These contain a variety of...

Wastewater Flow

Water is used in the slaughterhouse for carcass washing after hide removal from cattle, calves, and sheep and after hair removal from hogs. It is also used to clean the inside of the carcass after evisceration, and for cleaning and sanitizing equipment and facilities both during and after the killing operation. Associated facilities such as stockyards, animal pens, the steam plant, refrigeration equipment, compressed air, boiler rooms, and vacuum equipment will also produce some wastewater, as...

The Meat Industry

The meat industry is one of the largest producers of organic waste in the food processing sector and forms the interface between livestock production and a hygienically safe product for use in both human and animal food preparation. This chapter looks at this interface, drawing its boundaries at the point of delivery of livestock to the slaughterhouse and the point at which packaged meat is shipped to its point of use. The chapter deals with meat in accordance with the understanding of the term...

Flotation

Flotation is one of the most effective removal systems for suspensions that contain oil and grease. The most common procedure is that of dissolved air flotation (DAF), which is a waste-treatment process in which oil, grease, and other suspended matter are removed from a waste stream. This treatment process has been in use for many years and has been most successful in removing oil from waste streams. Essentially, DAF is a process that uses minute air bubbles to remove the suspended matter from...

Disinfection

Disinfection of seafood-processing wastewater is a process by which disease-causing organisms are destroyed or rendered inactive. Most disinfection systems work in one of the following four ways (i) damage to the cell wall, (ii) alteration of cell permeability, (iii) alteration of the colloidal nature of protoplasm, or (iv) inhibition of enzyme activity 9,15 . Disinfection is often accomplished using bactericidal agents. The most common agents are chlorine, ozone (O3), and ultraviolet (UV)...

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion of abattoir solid wastes is not common in the United States, UK, or elsewhere, despite the potential for stabilization of the solid residues with the added bonus of fuel gas production. Cooper et al. 30 looked at the potential in New Zealand for production of methane from both the solid and liquid fraction of abattoir wastes. Based on tests carried out by Buswell and Hatfield in 1939, they concluded that paunch contents and fecal matter would not give an economic return. In...

Stabilisation Ponds Wastewater Treatment Design Manual 2018

Development document for the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the meat and poultry products industry. Office of Water (4303T), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), EPA-821-B-01-007, 2002. 2. Council of the European Communities. Council Directive on health problems affecting the production and marketing of meat products and certain other products of animal origin. Official J. Eur. Comm. 1977, L 026 (31 October 1977), 0085-0100. 3. Warris, P.D....

Primary Treatment

Grease removal is a common first stage in slaughterhouse wastewater treatment, with grease traps in some situations being an integral part of the drainage system from the processing areas. Where the option is taken to have a single point of removal, this can be accomplished in one of two ways by using a baffled tank, or by dissolved air flotation (DAF). A typical grease trap has a minimum detention period of about 30 minutes, but the period need not to be greater than 1 hour 33 . Within the...

Onsite Pretreatment Options

The main purpose of screens in wastewater treatment is to remove large particles or debris that may cause damage to pumps and downstream clogging 27 . It is also recommended that the physical screening of dairy wastewater should be carried out as quickly as possible to prevent a further increase in the COD concentration as a result of the solid solubilization 28 . Wendorff 7 recommended the use of a wire screen and grit chamber with a screen aperture size of 9.5 mm, while Hemming 28 recommended...

Production of Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil RBDPO

Palm Oil Production Process

The refining of CPO employs physical steam refining in which steam distillation is used to separate free fatty acids under high temperature and vacuum Fig. 4.3 . It consists of two main processes as follows. Before the actual refining process is carried out, the CPO is pretreated with phosphoric acid to eliminate impurities such as gums and trace metals. A bleaching technique is then used to remove phosphoric acid and its content under vacuum, followed by a filtration method. Solid waste in the...