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Flash Brain Anatomy

This course gives you access to a full online course and software to learn more about the brain than you ever thought possible in a short amount of time. This software contains detailed, 3D brain models, animations to display concepts, hundreds of educational courses, a neuroanatomy atlas, and compatibility with most web browsers. You will also have access to a full online suite of tutors. Neuroanatomy is one of the hardest parts of anatomy to learn, and learning the brain will really be a lot easier if you had a detailed model to base your knowledge off. This software makes the brain as simple as possible, while also giving you a way to learn it throughly. This model simplifies a very complex subject that most people struggle with Don't be one of the people that doesn't know what to do with the brain model! This course is designed to teach you everything about the brain while keeping the lessons manageable and learning at your own pace.

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Basic Brain Anatomy And Functioning

A diagram of the human brain showing the left side (on the left) pulled away from the right side revealing the internal surface of the brain (on the right). Figure 21. A diagram of the human brain showing the left side (on the left) pulled away from the right side revealing the internal surface of the brain (on the right).

The Neuroanatomy of Executive Function

Many neurons in the prefrontal cortex respond to visual input. However, they seem to have no specificity for color, size, orientation, or movement, but they do have significant behavioral relevance for the visual stimulus.144 By exploring working memory, it appears that the prefrontal cortex can transform information access from a sequential process, where only one item of data can be managed at a given time, to another pattern where multiple items of data become concurrently accessible (parallel processing).145 If function allows the focus of attention to move from one to another, a number of variables can be attended and processed simultaneously. It is argued that when these functions are disrupted, mental impairment results, with loss of foresight, strategic thinking, and inability to manage risk.146 The orbitofrontal cortex in association with other paralimbic components of the frontal lobe enables a person to bind his thoughts, memories, and experiences with visceral and...

Statistical Approaches To Human Brain Mapping By Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Recent advances in medical imaging technology have expanded the study of human brain function in important and exciting new ways. A non-invasive set of techniques called functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, has begun to revolutionize how we learn about complex relationships between the mind, brain and behaviour. In the following tutorial, we (reader and author) will study some key ideas behind magnetic resonance imaging of the living human brain and its functions. fMRI of human brains is barely three years old. Even so, the rapidly growing body of literature on this topic is already too vast to discuss in full detail here. The basics of this multidisciplinary field involve introductory neuro-anatomy and some technically challenging concepts from physics, mathematics, computer science and statistics. Treatment of these areas, new to many readers, will be as simple as possible without being simplistic. A working knowledge of introductory probability and statistics, elementary...

The Neuroanatomy of Sensorimotor Function

And these play an important role within the coordination of complex movements.136 The primary somatosensory cortex lies in Brodmann's areas 1 and 2 (also called S1 and S2). The somatosensory association cortex lies within Brodmann's areas 5, 7, and probably also the anterior portion of Brodmann's area 40. The posterior insula is often included in this association cortex as well. The somatosensory association cortex in the human brain plays an essential role in the finer aspects of touch localization and active manual exploration (such as with the Tactual Performance Test of the Halstead-Reitan Battery). The somatosensory coordination of reaching and grasping and the encoding of complex somatosensory memories are subserved also.137

Diffuse Axonal Injury

Since it takes between 18 and 24 h for classic microscopic axonal bulbs to appear in the human brain following injury, it is likely that the incidence of diffuse axonal injury is probably higher than the published figures suggest.7 Pathological histochemistry has demonstrated the presence of axonal swellings appearing 3 to 12 h after an injury.7,108 Diffuse axonal injury should be suspected strongly if there are focal lesions in the corpus callosum and the appropriate areas of the brain stem noted by CT or MRI. If gliding contusions or hematomas are found in the basal ganglia on appropriate brain imaging, the likelihood is even greater that diffuse axonal injury has occurred.7

Walking Through History

Darwin fixated on the human brain as the benchmark of humanity. He believed that the brain, bipedalism, and tool use were inextricably linked. Becoming upright, he decided, allowed our newly freed hands to make and use tools, which in turn placed an evolutionary premium on being a clever craftsman. The effects on humanity cascaded from that point. Standing upright would have allowed the invention not only of tools but of weapons. Using weapons would have allowed smaller teeth for chewing food to replace the impressive canines that early humans used to rip flesh in battle. This shift, Darwin argued, would have reduced the size of the jaw muscles and the jaws themselves, bringing the human skull into the form it possesses today. But Darwin could not know that millions of years of evolution separated bipedal posture, tool use, and expansion of the brain. The fossil record was nearly nonexistent when he wrote, and ascertaining the ages of fossils was impossible. Engels was actually closer...

Energy Expenditure In Children

The observation that obesity occurs more frequently in children of obese parents led to a variety of studies to determine how much of the genetic predisposition to obesity is related to energy metabolism. Stunkard et al. reported data on energy intake and energy expenditure in infants born to lean and overweight mothers and concluded that excessive energy intake, rather than low energy expenditure, is the cause of obesity in infants at high risk of obesity (101). Childhood obesity is a vastly unexplored area and more studies are needed to understand how eating behavior forms and solidifies in conjunction with the final maturation of the human brain from childhood to adulthood. A hallmark study (102) found that infants who were overweight at 12 mo of age had a 20 lower TDEE (measured by DLW) compared with normal-weight infants when measured 9 mo earlier (i.e., 3 mo of age). Similarly, low energy expenditure in 5-yr-old girls was negatively correlated with BMI at adolescence (103). In...

Results and Discussion

We have applied our methods to two types of data sets. The first data set presented in this paper is a cryosection data set of a human brain.1 The resolution of the data set is 512 x 512 x 275. The second data set we present is a fluorescence microscopy data set of a cancer cell.2 The resolution of the data set is 100 x 100 x 40. To the data we have applied all of the three introduced clustering algorithms and the segmentation and surface extraction methods using hull intersection, constant division, and even the application of the axes-aligned cuboid. Fig. 9. Segmentation and surface extraction from cryosection data representing a human brain. We separated the brain tissues from the surrounding background for part of the brain (left). We also show one of the original slices (upper right) and a band of the surface when applying our algorithm to a few consecutive slices (lower right). Fig. 9. Segmentation and surface extraction from cryosection data representing a human brain. We...

Global Illumination of White Matter Fibers from Dtmri Data

We describe our recent work in applying physically-based global illumination to fiber tractography. The geometry of the fiber tracts is derived from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) datasets acquired from the white matter in the human brain. Most visualization systems display such fiber tracts using local illumination, a rendering technology provided by the video card on a typical desktop computer. There is indirect evidence that the human visual system perceives the shape of a fiber more quickly and more accurately when physically-based illumination is employed.

Results and Acknowledgments

Within the computer graphics research community, a considerable amount of effort is being applied to develop real-time systems for global illumination. Our proof-of-concept demonstration offers a preview of what may one day become the standard for 3D visualization systems for analyzing DT-MRI datasets acquired from the human brain.

Electrophysiological methods to assess hyperalgesia

In another study, the effect of as well skin as muscle capsaicin pain on the EEG was studied 69 . Painful and non-painful sensations were produced by intramuscular injections of capsaicin and vehicle solution in the left brachioradialis muscle in 15 male volunteers. Thirty-one-channel EEG data acquired before, during and after the two injections were analyzed in respect of the topography and the power spectrum. Comparing the EEG changes between baseline, non-painful and painful stimulations an increased P-2 activity during muscle pain was significant over extensive areas of the head, whereas a significant increase in a-2 activity took place at the posterior part of the head during the waning pain period. These results may imply that the painful and non-painful muscular stimulations evoke distinct EEG activation in different neural networks of the human brain and the intensity of nocicep-tive input from muscles may encode the variety of topographic EEG changes.

Mathematical Model of an Image

The use of color in image processing is a powerful descriptor that often simplifies object identification from a scene. Besides, the human eye can discern thousands of colours, shades and intensities, as compared to only no more than two-dozen shades of gray. The process of the human brain color perception is a psycho-physiological phenomenon not yet fully understood. Basically, the colors perceived in an object are determined by the nature of the light reflected from the object. If the light is achromatic, i.e., void of color, its only attribute is its intensity. Thus, the term gray

The Neuroanatomical and Neuroimaging Bases of Memory

We have seen earlier in this text that working memory (Chapter 2) is a function of attention more so than memory. Functional imaging techniques have recently confirmed the dominant role of the dorsolateral prefrontal regions for working memory in the human brain. A functional imaging experiment suggests that the dorsolateral frontal region, as well as the ventrolateral portions of the prefrontal cortex, contributes to both spatial and nonspatial working memories.7778 Explicit episodic memory has a different neuroanatomical substrate than implicit memory. The explicit memory system is dependent upon neural networks containing limbic as well as nonlimbic components. It has been argued that encoding and consolidation can be functionally separated. However, at this historical point in medical science, the neuroanatomical basis of implicit memory functions remains unclear. The storage of memory information also is not fully elucidated. A significant body of scientific evidence points to...

The Neuropsychological Measurement of Visuospatial and Perceptual Ability

Visuoperception is often impaired by brain injury. Typically, if one visual function is affected following brain injury, a cluster of functions will secondarily be affected as well.125 Visual functions are broadly divided along the lines of verbal or symbolic and configural stimuli. Lezak warns that when using visually presented material during the neuropsychological examination of lateralized brain injury, the examiner cannot categorically assume that the right brain is doing most of the processing when the stimuli are pictures. There is some activity that occurs within the left hemisphere as well.3 See Table 6.13 for a survey of purported visuoperceptual neuroanatomy.

Theories From The Last Half Of The Twentieth Century

In the late 1970s, Alan Hobson and Robert McCarley of the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School first described their activation-synthesis model of dreaming (Hobson & McCarley, 1977) as an extension of their reciprocal interaction model for the control of NREM REMS cycling (see Chapter 2). The theory has undergone revisions since then to incorporate new data and the neural network model of brain functioning. Also, the synthesis part of the theory has been more defined. I shall present the essence of the latest version here (c.f. Hobson et al., 2000) without specifying the many of its brain anatomy details.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Beside structural imaging, there are methods like magnetic resonance spec-troscopy (MRS) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allowing a non-invasive measure of the biochemistry or regional blood flow of the human brain. There is some evidence from MRS studies for fronto-temporal changes in schizophrenia. Therefore, children with symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and a comparison group took part in a proton-MRS study examining the left frontal lobe 216 . The mean ratio of N-acetylaspartatecreatine (NAA Cre) was significantly lower in schizophrenia spectrum subjects, suggesting that the metabolic changes associated with adult schizophrenia are observed in children with some or all of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Furthermore, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by SPECT in patients with schizotypal PD and normal volunteers under the condition of the WCST and a control task. At least some schizo-typal PD patients demonstrated abnormal patterns...

Current Approaches To Spatial Time Series Analysis In

Yet why do we need statistics at all, given that we have this impressive, ultra-modern non-invasive technology available for our use As mentioned in the introduction, it has been a century since the idea that brain activity is related directly to changes in brain metabolism was first proposed.3 These authors began their article on a statistical note, and spoke mainly of physiological noise and the proper design and analysis of experiments, involving in their case highly invasive and sacrificial procedures on subprimate animals which at the time were considered fairly 'high tech'. Neuroscience has had to wait until now to measure dynamic processes non-invasively in living human brains. Of continuing concern today, however, is the ease with which one can obtain 'results' in the analysis of digital images, whether by fMRI or otherwise. Pixels and voxels can be grouped, stretched, smoothed, replaced or otherwise altered in infinite numbers of ways to cause desired features to appear or...

Epidemiology of Phobias Old Terminology New Relevance

To the extent that these concerns are primarily diagnostic, they should be better covered in the appropriate section in this volume. However, it is possible that new developments in neuroscience will again make phobic avoidance an important target for anxiety disorders research. Specifically, recent technology is making it possible to examine the neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of select symptoms of an anxiety disorder such as fear, worry or phobic avoidance. As these symptoms cut across diagnostic categories, future epidemiological studies may focus on avoidance behaviour as a dimension of most anxiety disorders, making the epidemiology of phobias increasingly meaningful once more.

Intuitive User Interaction for Cluster Selection Combination and Refinement

While selecting, combining, and refining clusters, the user is provided with a preview of the current selection in object space. The preview contains a 2D contour rendered on top of a 2D slice. Any of the original 2D color slices can be chosen. In Figure 3, the pink contour encloses the white matter of the cryosection slice through a human brain. When selecting other or additional clusters, the contour is immediately updated. A slice-based preview is desirable, as the user can simultaneously observe the contour, the interior, and the exterior of the current selection, which allows for a good judgment of the accuracy of the feature selection.

Microtransplantation of Neurotransmitter Receptors From Cells to Xenopus Oocyte Membranes

The Xenopus oocyte is largely used as a cell expression system for studying both structure and function of transmitter receptors and ion channels. Messenger RNA extracted from the brain and injected into oocytes leads to the synthesis and membrane incorporation of many types of functional ion channels. A new method was developed further to transplant neurotransmitter receptors from human brain or cultured cell lines to the membrane of Xenopus oocytes. This method represents a modification of the method used many years ago of injecting into oocytes membrane vesicles from Torpedo electroplaques, yielding the expression of functional Torpedo acetylcholine receptors. We describe this approach by extracting membrane vesicles from human hippocampus or temporal neocortex and from mammalian cell lines stably expressing glutamate or neuronal nicotinic receptors. Because the human neurotransmitter receptors are microtransplanted with their native cell membranes, this method extends the...

The Brain in Sleep8

In order to fully understand sleep, it is necessary to understand how the brain produces it. It used to be thought that the brain simply reduces its overall level of activity and arousal as the way of producing sleep. We now know this is not true (see Box 10). As Pittsburgh psychiatrist and sleep and brain researcher, Eric Nofzinger, (personal communication, June, 2000) said, rather than a general reduction in activity, the brain is functioning under a different set of rules during sleep. It functionally reorganizes during sleep such that some areas become more active during sleep, and others become less active. It is necessary, therefore, to have a basic understanding of brain anatomy and brain functioning to understand sleep fully.


Most of the work on formal representation is being carried out in AI rather than psychology, and 1 have been asked whether this implies a rejection of connectionist or subsymbolic theories of knowledge, which are more influential in psychology and neuro science. I think it does not. Whether one believes the human brain-mind system is really symbolic or not, we must use symbolic formalisms if we are to develop theory in this field. We describe the acceleration of an object falling in a gravitational field in a symbolic mathematical language but do not conclude from this that the object is carrying out some sort of symbolic computation.

Meat And Potatoes

Not everyone today believes that meat eating was all-important in becoming human. The Harvard anthropologist Richard Wrang-ham and his colleagues recently claimed that eating potato-like tubers was what led to the expansion of the human brain. They find convincing, if highly circumstantial, evidence for tuber eating and tuber cooking in the fossil record of two million years ago. We know that humans grew rapidly in stature and brain size during that time. Wrangham's group posits that early humans had a eureka moment, not unlike that of the monolith-gazing ape-humans in 2001 A Space Odyssey. Lightning-set fires are common on the African savanna, and some of the plants in the region have adapted to the risk of lightning fires by storing their energy underground, out of harm's way.

Senile Plaques

Two types of amyloid deposits are evident in the parenchym of the human brain neuritic and nonneuritic (diffuse) senile plaques. Neuritic plaques are diagnostic for AD. They are 20-150 m across and consist of a central core of amyloid, surrounded by abnormal neuronal processes, i.e., swollen neurites. These dystrophic neurites are distended and contain degenerating cellular organelles, mitochondria, and lysosomes. Interspersed among the neurites are also processes of activated microglia and astrocytes.

Prefrontal cortex

The prefrontal cortex is located in front of the premotor area and represents about a quarter of the entire cerebral cortex in the human brain. This area is involved in organizing and planning the intellectual and emotional aspects of behavior, much as the adjacent premotor cortex is involved in planning its motor aspects.


A review of the relevant neuroanatomy is necessary before discussing the neuropathology resulting from lumbar disc disease. The most frequent sites of lumbar disc prolapse are the L4 5 and L5 SI intervertebral spaces (4-6). Usually, prolapse is in a posteriolateral direction not affecting the majority of the cauda equina. However, in 1-15 of cases, central-disc prolapse occurs and compression of the cauda equina may result (4) (Fig. 1). In fact, in some instances a large posteriolateral disc prolapse may migrate medially and cause cauda equina compression as well (4). Thus, fusing this neuroanatomy with the known neural innervation of the lower urinary tract, one can see how prolapse anywhere along the lumbar spine could interfere with the parasympathetic (S2-S4) and somatic (S3-S4) innervation, whereas only prolapse at the upper lumbar spine, which is relatively rare, would affect the sympathetic (T11-L2) innervation. Along with interfering with parasympathetic and somatic...