Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
We present a set of coherent methods for the nearly automatic creation of 3D geometric models from large stacks of images of histological sections. Three-dimensional surface models facilitate the visual analysis of 3D anatomy. They also form a basis for standardized anatomical atlases that allow researchers to integrate, accumulate and associate heterogeneous experimental information, like functional or gene-expression data, with spatial or even spatio-temporal reference. Models are created by performing the following steps image stitching, slice alignment, elastic registration, image segmentation and surface reconstruction. The proposed methods are to a large extent automatic and robust against inevitably occurring imaging artifacts. The option of interactive control at most stages of the modeling process complements automatic methods. Three-dimensional models help scientists to gain a better understanding of complex biomedical objects. Models provide fundamental assistance...
Leonardo immersed himself in human post-mortem examinations as the best means of defining the structures of the human body. He critically examined 30 human corpses at a time when nobody was performing these examinations.1,2 He went from fetuses to babyhood to old age. He wanted to recognize each part of the human body, including bones, muscles, ligaments, nerves, and the central nervous system. He defined the importance of the heart, its four cavities and the contraction of the ventricles.1,2 He advanced the knowledge of all abdominal organs, particularly the genito-urinary system, as well as the rest of the thoracic organs. He not only studied human anatomy, but also the bodies of pigs and oxen, his preferred animal for dissections.1 the extraordinary anatomic drawings of da Vinci, which were utilized for the better understanding of human anatomy. Leonardo's extraordinary advances in anatomy led the way for surgeons, who could utilize his concepts and ideas on the repair of afflicted...
The human face is not only the center for vital functions of the human body-speech, eating, smell, taste, vision, and hearing--but the face is a very noticeable part of the human anatomy. Any injury to the face can impair body functions and create severe stress in a person's life. It is, therefore, important to locate and correct any facial problem as soon as possible. Examine the face using two techniques inspection and palpation.
Death seldom results from the bite of this spider when proper measures are administered in time. It is necessary to pack the site of the bite with crushed ice for 6-8 hours to keep the venom from spreading rapidly. Keep the patient warm to the point of perspiration and force fluids into him. The treatment is much the same as for a pit viper bite, but for a much shorter period of time. The venom injected by the recluse spider is not really a toxin, but a complete chemical that inhibits the normal action of the infection-fighting antibodies in the human anatomy. 10 to 50 mg IV of Benadryl may be given for the first 24 hours for acute reaction, a medical officer can give up to 300 mg of Benadryl IV. The wound can be especially dangerous when the wound edges become black and purple (necrotic). The area sloughs in a few days to a week and leaves a deep, sharply defined granular area that is surrounded by the raised edge of healthy tissue. This area becomes quite large and may persist for...
Donald Broadbent ( 1926-1993) was director ofthe Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit in Cambridge, United Kingdom. He made many contributions concerning the organization and integration of human cognitive functions, like memory, attention, and decision making, drawing on experimental investigations and detailed observations ofthe complex demands that real-world environments place on human beings. His applied focus gave him a keen awareness that cognitive functions arc strongly affeetcd by environmental factors, like high noise levels, and other stressors, and how they affect human physiology. His engineering training also allowed himto see how the information theory that developed during and after the global conflict of 1939-1945 could shed light on these processes. The centerpiece of Perception and Communication 1958), the book that established his reputation, visualized functions like memory, attention, and decision making in an image ofthe mind as an informa-ti...
John Hunter was born in 1728 in Scotland and at the age of 23 arrived at St. Bartholomew's Hospital to work with Percivall Pott. He worked on comparative and human anatomy and described the exposition of the arteries in the human body. His books and publications had a profound impact on the medical and surgical practice of that time. He described, famously, the very proximal ligation of the femoral artery, for the preservation of the collateral branches, in the treatment of popliteal aneurysm. One such surgical specimen is exhibited at the renowned museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in London. In 1757, William Hunter, John's older brother, described and properly analysed the development of ar-terio-venous aneurysms 38 .
Andreas Vesalius is arguably the founder of modern anatomy, having greatly advanced the science with his detailed descriptions and drawings of human anatomy. His greatest contribution was his major work titled De humani corporis fabricca libri septem ( Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body ) published in 1543, which contained not only detailed descriptions and drawings of the human anatomy, but rudiments of anthropology. Sentenced to death by the Inquisition for his new approach of the dissection of human cadavers, he journeyed instead to a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
The human skeletal system (see figure 1-1) consists of about 206 bones. The skeleton gives shape and support to the human body. Together with the skeletal muscles, it performs movement of the body. The skeleton, especially the skull and rib cage, provides protection to vital internal organs such as the brain, lungs, and heart. The red marrow in the center of bones produces red blood cells that carry oxygen and
The adult human skeleton includes 206 bones (see figure 1-3). Bones consist of a hard outer shell (cortex) and a spongy or porous inner part (spongiosa). Within some bones there is a cavity which contains marrow. Marrow is a soft tissue composed chiefly of fat and blood-forming tissue (see figure 1-4). Some bones form movable joints and, with the action of muscles, these joints bring about movement of the body and its parts. Other bones, such as those of the skull, are joined in a fixed position. The functions of the skeletal system are to
When the invitation came from Springer-Verlag to produce this first European manual of vascular surgery, it was accepted enthusiastically by the editors, albeit with some trepidation concerning the demands of such a venture. This concern was due to the diverse nature of the vascular system, which covers every part of the human body therefore, diseases of the vascular system affect all organs and all parts of the human anatomy and in order to provide a thorough perspective on the discipline of vascular surgery, the manual would have to cover the full spectrum of vascular diseases.
The Physiome Project will build on linking descriptions of biological function and structure. On a macroscopic level, this will benefit from another on-going large-scale research effort - the Visible Human Project. This is an expansion of the 1986 long-range plan of the US National Library for Medicine to create anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the human anatomy. The project is based on collecting transverse computer tomography, magnetic resonance, and cryosection images at 0.5-1 mm intervals. This spatial resolution is sufficient to develop initial models of biological function, in particular where these are related to macro-mechanics or passive electrical properties. A finer resolution will, however, be required in the context of anatomico-functional modelling at tissue level and, almost certainly, when addressing inter-cellular or sub-cellular events.
Denis Noble, 64, is the British Heart Foundation Burdon Sanderson Professor of Cardiovascular Physiology at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Balliol College. In the early 1960s, he developed the first 'ionic' cell models of cardiac excitation and rhythm generation and has been at the forefront of computational biology ever since. As the Secretary-General of the International Union of Physiological Sciences, he has been pivotal to the initiation of a world-wide effort to describe human physiology by analytical models - the Physiome Project. In 1998 he was honoured by the Queen for his services to Science with a CBE. Denis Noble enjoys playing classical guitar, communicating with people all over the world in their mother-tongue, and converting the preparation of a meal into a gastronomic celebration.
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.