Core Messages

• Histopathology has shown that stromal choroiditis is characterized by inflammatory, mostly granulomatous, foci of different sizes

• These foci appear as hypofluorescent areas on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA)

• ICGA has shown, in addition to the hypofluorescent dark areas, hyperfluorescent large choroidal vessels and late diffuse hyperflu-oresence indicating choroidal vasculitis

• Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a good example of primary stromal choroiditis as the immune mediated process is specifically targeting the stromal melanocytes

• ICGA can detect the early inflammatory events when disease is still subclinical and has not yet caused secondary inflammation to neighbouring structures such as the retina (exudative retinal detachment)

• ICGA is essential in optimal follow-up of VKH

• Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BC) is a particular disease, as the choroid and the retina are involved in parallel, inflammation of one structure not being secondary to inflammation occurring in the neighbouring structure

• Choroidal involvement in BC should be considered a primary stromal choroiditis, although the target has not yet been identified

• Choroiditis due to sarcoidosis illustrates the second group of stromal choroiditides where the choroid is only the innocent bystander of an inflammatory reaction that involves the choroid at random but is not specifically directed towards the choroid

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