Cytokines

It has been hypothesized that polarization towards a Thi-type T-lymphocyte response is involved in the pathogenesis of Behçet's disease based on observations of upregulated expression of proinflammatory, Thi-type cytokines. However, other studies support a role for a Th2 response in Behçet's disease pathogenesis. Increased levels of IL-4, IL-i0 and IL-i3 are observed in the sera of patients with active Be-hçet's disease [54, 55]. IFNg, TNF-a, TNF receptor (TNFR-75), IL-i, IL-2, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-8, and IL-i2 are all reported to be significantly higher in the sera of affected patients [50]. In addition, a subset of cytokines, including sIL-2R, IL-8, IL-i2 and TNFR-75, may serve as markers of disease activity [56]. In studies of lymphocyte apoptosis, recombinant IL-12 decreased Fas-induced lymphocyte apop-tosis and enhanced the proliferation of Th1 T lymphocytes [57]. These findings, both from in vivo and in vitro studies, suggest that high IL-12 levels increase both the survival and proliferation of autoreactive Th1 lymphocytes leading to disease progression. Exposure of peripheral blood lymphocytes to IFNg produced decreases in IL-4 and IL-10 and an increase in IL-12, evidence for the Th1 polarization of the immune response.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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