Epidemiology Definition and Characteristics of Dry

Dry eye disease is a widespread disruption of the normal homeostasis of the ocular surface that affects, depending on the tests applied for diagnosis in various studies, up to 10-30% of the population [56]. It is not homogeneously distributed in the population but more likely affects elderly people and preferentially women, which may point to certain risk factors such as age or hormonal status. It is caused, according to a definition of the American National Eye Institute (NEI) [30], by an alteration of the tear film either due to aqueous deficiency or to increased evaporation. This condition leads to a disruption of the cellular and morphological integrity of the ocular surface and eventually

Fig. 6.5. Clinical photo of severe dry eye disease. A severe dry eye shows dryness of the ocular surface with epithelial staining (if different kinds of vital stains such as fluorescein or rose bengal are applied). The corneal reflex is disturbed and the transparency of the cornea is decreasing. The eye is severely inflamed and shows neovascularization with new vessels that grow from the limbus onto the cornea

Fig. 6.5. Clinical photo of severe dry eye disease. A severe dry eye shows dryness of the ocular surface with epithelial staining (if different kinds of vital stains such as fluorescein or rose bengal are applied). The corneal reflex is disturbed and the transparency of the cornea is decreasing. The eye is severely inflamed and shows neovascularization with new vessels that grow from the limbus onto the cornea causes the symptoms that are presented to the ophthalmologist [48].Symptoms can range over a wide spectrum from mild discomfort and increased fatigue of the eye to redness, itching, burning and stinging sensations (Fig. 6.5). It can be associated with usually minor alterations of visual acuity but may in severe cases lead to severe inflammation, scarring and blinding.

The dry eye syndrome appears as a complex deregulation of the functional anatomy of the ocular surface [27] and deficiencies of the tear film can originate, for example, from alterations of the lid shape, blinking mechanism or innervation, from alterations of the endocrine network, from the presence of meibomian gland disease or from chronic mechanical irritation of any kind (e.g. contact lenses).

In recent years evidence has accumulated from intensive investigations that various forms of dry eye disease are associated with inflammatory alterations [41,48,58] of the ocular surface and appendage that are associated with inflammatory factors inside the tissue and tear film.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment