HLA Nomenclature

Historically, an individual's HLA type was determined serologically, and each new type described was given a number, for example HLA-B*27. A workshop number indicated by a "w" would be given when the HLA type was in the process of being established, for example HLA-DRw4. A subtype would be indicated by a decimal point, for example HLA-A29.1 and HLA-A29.2. Since the advent of polymerase chain reaction technology,DNA sequencing and other techniques to determine HLA genotypes, a different but related nomenclature has been used. The HLA type, such as HLA-B, is followed by an asterisk (*), then four to six digits. The first two digits are often the same as the serologic designation, and the next two digits represent the subtype. The remaining two digits are used for pseudogenes or single base differences when present. Several groups of serologically defined HLA types have been reclassified using newer techniques as well. For example, HLA-B*44 consists of subtypes HLA*B4401 though HLA-B*4411; HLA*B44 is the genomic equivalent of HLA-B*44(12). The designation HLA-B*44(12) indicates that HLA-B*12 and HLA-B*44 in older reports were different serologic designations of the products of the same HLA gene (HLA split products).

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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