The choroid is the site of origin of posterior intraocular inflammations at least as often if not more often than the retina. Unlike the retina, where lesions are accessible to funduscopy at an early stage of disease and can be analysed in fine detail by fluorescein angiography, exploration of the choroid has been very gross and limited so far. Only choroidal foci of sufficient importance causing yellow-white discoloration of the fundus red reflex have been detected through the screen of the retinal pigmentary epithelium by fundoscopy. Fine alterations caused by choroiditis or the early stages of disease have, however, not been accessible to imaging exploration unless they produced alterations on the adjacent structures such as the overlying retinal pigmentary epithelium and/or retina.

Therefore appraisal of choroiditis has been mainly descriptive based on fundoscopy, with little information on early inflammatory lesions, their site of origin and the potential sequence of inflammatory events. This approach, purely based on clinical examination, has led to amalgamate conditions that are similar on fun-doscopy but are the result of completely diverse pathologic processes [1]. This is well illustrated by the inadequate introduction of the term "white dot syndromes" purely based on the fundus appearance of posterior segment inflammatory diseases [1]. Although the diseases covered by the term "white dot syndromes" vary from one author to the other, this terminology brings together under the same denomination disease entities that obviously have different origins and pathologic processes such as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease where the primary insult is at the level of the choroidal stromal melanocytes and acute posterior multifocal pla-coid epitheliopathy (APMPPE) most probably due to inflammation of the choriocapillaris [1].

Since the availability of indocyanine green angiography, more detailed investigation of the choroid has been possible, giving information on early and/or subclinical disease, and on the structures involved in the inflammatory process, leading to a more appropriate classification based on the mechanisms of choroidal inflammation. Some of these mechanisms have been verified histopathologically while others are still only presumed to exist and need proof.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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