Ocular Involvement

Ocular involvement, frequently termed ocular BD, occurs in 60-80% of patients on average 4 years after disease onset [11,21,135,156,157]. It is the initial symptom in 10-20 % of patients [11, 21,156,157]. Recurrences are common and the recurrent attacks of ocular inflammation lead to severe, permanent ocular damage unless effective treatment is instituted. Each attack damages the eye; therefore loss of sight occurs in affected BD patients. The reported frequency of ocular involvement in cases of BD is 83-95 % in men and 67-75 % in women [156]. The disease is often more severe in men, and bilateral disease occurs in 80 % of patients.

The primary manifestation in 50-87% of BD patients may be unilateral and occurs most often as an anterior uveitis, but later, in two-thirds of cases, bilateral panuveitis with a chronic relapsing course is present [11, 21, 96,

Nongranulomatous inflammation with necrotizing obliterative vasculitis may be found either in the anterior or the posterior segment, or, more commonly, in both.

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