Exfoliative dermatitis

Exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma) can complicate a number of dermatological and systemic problems, including psoriasis (especially following steroid withdrawal), atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, ichthyosis, drug eruptions and lymphoma. Its most generalized form is called the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (see Erythema multiforme). The staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a form of exfoliative dermatitis, which is produced by the exfoliative toxin of S. aureus. It is sometimes...

Respiratory diseases

Irritants Lung

Issues related to the management of major respiratory problems comprise much of the backbone of Intensive Care, particularly problems concerning mechanical ventilation, acute (adult) respiratory distress syndrome and nosocomial pneumonia. While many other respiratory problems are also common, especially asthma, acute pulmonary oedema, community-acquired pneumonia and pulmonary thromboembolism, some may have uncommon causes or differential diagnoses. These uncommon aspects of common conditions,...

Aspergillosis see Eosmophilia and lung

Infiltration (asthmatic pulmonary eosinophilia)) Aspergillosis is caused by the fungus aspergillus, most commonly A. fumigatus but occasionally others, e.g. A. flavus. Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature, and infection arises only when it is aerosolized into a normally sterile site (thus, it is usually a pulmonary infection). Moreover, its isolation from normal subjects may not be significant, whereas its presence in an immunocompromised patient should be taken very seriously....

Alopecia

Alopecia, which refers to loss of bodily hair, can have many causes and may vary in extent from the loss of an area of hair on the scalp to the loss of all bodily hair, even including eyebrows and eyelashes. 1. Alopecia areata is a localized condition of unknown cause, occurring in young people and with one or more areas of complete hair loss, usually on the scalp. There is minimal inflammation clinically although histological examination shows lymphoid cells around the hair bulbs , and the...

Ebola haemorrhagic fever

Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe acute viral illness of tropical Africa. It can also occur in travellers who have visited this region. The reservoir is unknown, and it is transmitted from person to person, including air-borne nosocomial hospital spread. Of historical interest, it as well as other conditions has been postulated as the cause of the plague of Athens in 430 BC. Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever VHF and is thus related to a number of other types of similar...

Aspirin

Aspirin acetylsalicylic acid was first prepared by Hoffman at Bayer and introduced into clinical medicine in 1899 as an antiinflammatory agent. It had been preceded by sodium salicylate, which had been used since 1875 for its antipyretic and uricosuric as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This in turn had been preceded in previous centuries by the use of willowbark salicylate-containing as an antipyretic for ague. Aspirin consists of benzoic acid with an acetyl group at the ortho position,...

Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid tumours are the most common endocrine-secreting tumours of the gut, though most such tumours do not secrete sufficient quantities of mediators to produce the overt clinical features referred to as the carcinoid syndrome. The tumours may arise anywhere in the gut and occasionally in the bronchial tree. The appendix is the commonest site 40 , followed by the small intestine 24 , half in the ileum , rectum 14 and lung 10 . Gut tumours metastasize to the liver, but lung tumours tend to...