Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. More here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary

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The Digestion Of Carbohydrates

The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth by the enzyme alpha-amylase or ptyalin, which is found in saliva. The process of turning complex carbohydrates (starches) into simple disaccharide units thus begins in the mouth. The mouth is very important in the digestion of carbohydrates--food is chewed, mixed with saliva, and swallowed. This occurs within a very short period of time, which allows for only about five percent of the starch to split. As the bolus moves on to the stomach, the low pH of the stomach prevents further action by salivary amylase. Hence, very little further digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the stomach. b. After the carbohydrates pass into the small intestine, their digestion is completed. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase acts on the remaining starch and

Diabetes And Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates in the diet include monosaccharides and disaccharides, the starches and the indigestible carbohydrates, such as cellulose, pectins, gums, and psyllium. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends the following terms sugars, starch, and fiber, whereas terms such as simple sugars, complex carbohydrates, and fast-acting carbohydrates should be avoided because they are not well-defined. Carbohydrates in the form of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and low-fat milk are recommended. Normally, the diet contains 45-55 of total calories as carbohydrates. The minimal amount of carbohydrates needed for the brain to function is 130 g day, as set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy's Institute of Medicine in their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes. Most people exceed this amount with median ranges of 200-300 g day for men and 180-230 g day for women. Although carbohydrates, like monounsaturates, do not have significant effects on cholesterol, they...

Calories or Carbohydrates

The focus of the low-carbohydrate approach is on carbohydrate rather than the number of calories consumed. Given that individuals following this approach track the grams of carbohydrate from only a limited number of foods, it is appealing to many dieters because it reduces the burden of accounting for all foods consumed however, it may also reduce awareness of total calories consumed because the emphasis is placed on altering one's metabolic state rather than altering one's energy balance. Rather than attribute differences in weight loss between low- and high- carbohydrate diets to differences in energy intake, some suggest that low-carbohydrate diets confer a metabolic advantage (i.e., differences in the metabolism of nutrients, increased energy expenditure, etc.) that results in greater weight loss (6,14). Comparing the effects of isocaloric low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on body weight would test the hypothesis that metabolic factors rather than calories account for the...

Low Carbohydrate and Low Glycemic Index

There has been a dramatic increase in interest in use of diets low in carbohydrate content or having a low glycemic index (GI) to promote weight loss. (See Chapters 14 and 15 for discussion of these diets.) One 12-wk study in overweight adolescents showed significantly greater weight loss with a low-carbohydrate diet compared with a low-fat diet, with no adverse effects on lipid profiles in either group (86). In a small study of 14 adolescents, those on a low- to moderate-GI diet lost significantly more weight and showed less of an increase in insulin resistance over a 12-mo period than did the adolescents assigned to a low-fat diet (25-30 of energy from fat) (87). A low-GI diet may offer a more easily taught approach to dietary modification in the primary care setting than more traditional low-calorie low-fat diets (88).

Adhesion to the Epithelium

Microorganisms maintain themselves in or on their host by adhesion to cells or the extracellular matrix. Adhesins are encoded by chromosomal genes, plasmids, or phages.40 They are usually divided into fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins.41 Fimbrial adhesins are present in organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and are in part responsible for the attachment to genitourinary tract epithelium, preventing the bacteria from being washed out by the urine stream.42 An example of an afimbrial adhesin is the filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis, which is responsible for the attachment of B. pertussis to epithelial cells in the respiratory tract.43 Adhesins attach to receptors in the host. These receptors include proteins, glycolipids, and carbohydrates exposed on the surface of cells or in the extracellular matrix.40 Integrins are one class of proteins present on eukaryotic cell surfaces that can serve as bacterial receptors.40 Helicobacter pylori binds to Lewis blood group antigen...

Balancing intake and output

The Food Pyramid, developed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), illustrates the healthy diet as based on a foundation of plant-based foods, including whole-grain complex carbohydrates and substantial amounts of vegetables and fruits. Meat and dairy products make up a smaller proportion, with fats and sweets being used only sparingly.

Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance

Vegetarian diets do not have a well-defined effect on glucose tolerance. Western vegetarian diets generally include more low glycemic index foods, such as legumes and fruit, than non-vegetarian Western diets and might therefore reduce the incidence of glucose intolerance. Snowdon and Phillips43 found that self-reported diabetes was less prevalent among vegetarian than among non-vegetarian Seventh-Day Adven-tists, and that diabetes was only half as common as a cause of death among Seventh-Day Adventists, as compared with the American population as a whole. However, Asian vegetarians from the Indian subcontinent suffer a high incidence of diabetes, despite eating relatively large amounts of legumes. It is possible that a vegetarian diet high in complex carbohydrates has some protective effect against glucose intolerance and diabetes, but other factors such as energy intake, physical activity, and genotype may play more important roles in determining the risk of these conditions.

Weight concerns Overweight and obesity

She has been overweight all her life everyone in her family is heavy. She has tried Weight Watchers, the Atkins diet, and several others diets. Sometimes she loses weight, but she always regains it. She wonders whether there's a way for her to really lose weight, or whether it's hopeless at this point in her life. The Atkins Diet is a restricted-carbohydrate, high-protein, and restricted-fat diet. This diet takes advantage of the ketosis that develops during starvation the resulting anorexia reduces appetite. However, ketosis can also cause fatigue, constipation, and vomiting. Potential long-term side effects include heart disease, bone loss, and kidney damage. In addition, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets tend to be low in calcium, fiber, and healthy phyto-chemicals. The proponents of this diet advise taking vitamin and mineral supplements to replace lost nutrients.

Diet and medical problems Diabetes

The major nutrient that affects blood sugar levels is carbohydrate in the form of sugar and starch, as found in grains, fruits, vegetables, sweets, and milk. The total amount of carbohydrate consumed is more important than the source or type (evidence level A). Sucrose, or table sugar, does not increase blood sugar any more than the same amount of starch, so sucrose can be substituted for other carbohydrates in the diet. There is no evidence to support

Gastrointestinal Infections

Gastrointestinal infections have a particularly important role in inducing a compromise in host nutritional status. Malabsorption in gastrointestinal illness may result from the epithelial destruction by the pathogen or by the immune response to the pathogen. Even common diarrheal illnesses can have a profound impact on nutrient absorption. In symptomatic rotavirus infection, the most common cause of acute severe diar-rheal illness worldwide, there is a 42 decrease in the absorption of nitrogen and fat, a 48 decrement in the absorption of carbohydrates, and a 55 decrease in the total energy absorp-tion.122 These indices for malabsorption are slightly more severe in both ETEC infections and shigellosis.25,122 In shigellosis,123 protein loss is sizable and important, and vitamin A is wasted.27 Giardiasis and ascariasis lead to the malabsorption of vitamin A.24 Large losses of zinc also occur in diarrhea.124

Disorders Of The Intestines

Sprue, or malabsorption of nutrients from the small intestine, can be very serious. It usually involves impaired absorption of fats and vitamins that leads to vitamin deficiency and anemia (inadequate red blood cell count). Treatment of sprue usually consist s of a high carbohydrate, low protein, low fat diet with vitamin supplements. Emergency replenishment of vital nutrients, if necessary, can be accomplished by intravenous injection.

Importance Of The Circulatory System

The average adult human's body is made up of around eighty trillion (80,000,000,000,000) living cells. Cells need energy to survive, repair themselves, perform their functions, and reproduce. Cells obtain this energy through cellular respiration that is, they combine a source of potential energy with oxygen to liberate energy. The sources of potential energy come from the food (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) that are processed into usable units by the body's digestive system (stomach, small intestine, liver, pancreas, and so forth). The oxygen comes from the air that is inhaled by the lungs. Oxygen in the lungs and food in the intestine cannot help the muscles and other cells unless the oxygen and food can be delivered to those cells. Delivering oxygen and food to the cells is the function of the blood in the body's circulatory system. The circulatory system also takes waste products (by-products of cellular respiration) from the cells and...

Cytoplasm and Its Contents

The cytoplasm is inside the cell membrane and is mostly water by composition. However, it has a semifluid nature due to a suspension of carbohydrates, enzymes, inorganic ions, lipids, and proteins. Within this suspension can be found the nuclear region, ribosomes, storage products, and endospores.

Sustained Weight Loss With Chronic Cannabinoid Stimulation

When mice are fed a palatable high-fat diet, they overeat and become obese. In one series of experiments, mice maintained on the palatable diet and chronically administered the CB1 antagonist (SR 141716) ate less food (104-106). What is particularly important is that the anorectic action of the antagonists lessened and then disappeared altogether over a week or two in spite of continued dosing, indicating apparent tolerance to the behavioral action (105). Nonetheless, there was a sustained and, in fact, increased reduction of body weight and body fat mass over the next several weeks despite the fact that food intake was normal, strongly implying that other actions of the CB1 antagonists were continuing to exert metabolic effects (104,105). At the end of the experiments, mice

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor1

Plasma levels of PAI-1 are elevated with obesity and strongly correlated with visceral adiposity (120). It appears that secretion from AT is increased in obese individuals (121). Interestingly, mice that lack PAI-1 are completely protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity (122). Even ob ob mice, as a model of genetic morbid obesity, are protected (123). This suggests that PAI-1 effects are not limited to clotting but may have other systemic effects.

P Hydroxydehydrogenase1

To high fat diet-induced obesity (133,134). Interestingly, obese humans appear to have increased adipose tissue concentrations of the enzyme (131), possibly contributing to the development of central adiposity. Furthermore, healthy volunteers given an 11 HSD-1 inhibitor called carbenoxolone showed increased insulin sensitivity (135).

The GeneAn Unusual Portfolio with a Compounded Legacy

The concept of the gene, unlike that of other biochemical entities, did not emerge from the logos of chemistry. Unlike proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, the gene did not come on the scene as a physical entity at all but rather as a kind of placeholder in a biological theory. As the obvious etymological link with the word genesis suggests, the very sense of being a gene is that from out of which other things arise. The concept of the gene began not with an intention to put a name on some piece of matter but rather with the intention of referring to an unknown something, whatever that something might turn out to be, which was deemed to be responsible for the transmission of biological form between generations.

Macronutrient Balance

One way to frame a discussion of substrate competition is to consider what is required to maintain macronutrient balance in a normal-weight, weight-stable individual. To maintain macronutrient balance, the amounts of carbohydrate and fat that are consumed daily must be oxidized. Intake of calories in excess of the amounts oxidized leads of course to weight gain, whereas negative energy balance must be achieved to accomplish weight loss. Carbohydrates typically comprise 40 to 50 of daily caloric intake in an average American diet. For this discussion, this will be assumed to be approx 1,000 kcal (or 250 g). Daily ingestion of carbohydrate is considerable as compared with systemic glycogen. Stores of glycogen are relatively small at approx 500 g, just twice the amount of daily consumption. It is interesting to consider that a 75-kg man or woman can be estimated to consume his or her body weight in carbohydrates annually. Most of this glycogen, 400 g, is contained in skeletal muscle. In...

Gestation Lactation And Maternal Environment

The majority of human beings are raised with their biological mothers. This means that they are exposed to the maternal environment throughout gestation and lactation, as well as through the rest of their formative years. Thus, outcome in humans is dependent not only on the biological effects of the perinatal maternal environment but also on a number of psychosocial and socioeconomic variables. Because these variables are not major factors in animal models, these models are best suited for investigating the effects of altering the metabolic perinatal environment on offspring outcome. Rodent models also have the advantage that lifelong patterns of food intake and body weight are generally established by the second week of life as long as dietary content is held constant thereafter (39,40). Whereas human studies can only suggest a relationship, it is clear that maternal obesity throughout gestation and lactation in rats leads to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in...

Postnatal Influences on Offspring

Although the prenatal environment has a major impact on the developing fetus, a number of postnatal factors can alter the development of ingestive behavior in neonates and predispose them to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome as adults. Metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral interactions of pups with their dams are critical factors in this regard. Maternal milk is composed primarily of fatty acids (104-106) and the composition of milk understandably has a major impact on the developing neonate. Because maternal milk contains more fat than carbohydrate, neonates utilize fatty acids and ketone bodies as their primary energy substrates. During suckling, neonates transport ketone bodies preferentially over carbohydrates across the blood-brain barrier, and ketone bodies serve as the primary energy substrate for neuronal and glial metabolism (107,108). Blockade of both fatty acid oxidation (lipoprivation) (109) and glucose oxidation (glucoprivation) (110) increase food intake in adults....

Perinatal Environment And Brain Development

Once obesity develops, it effectively becomes a permanent condition, particularly in genetically predisposed individuals (219-223). This appears to be due to a neural set point that resides in the network of metabolic sensing neurons involved in energy ho-meostasis and is determined by a host of factors including genetic predisposition, diet composition, sex, and environmental conditions (220,221,224-231). Regardless of the starting point, the brain and periphery interact to preserve adipose stores when food supply is limited. Thus, during prolonged periods of caloric restriction, rats and humans maintain a reduced level of energy expenditure (219,222,223,232). When allowed ad libitum access to food, they increase their intake and maintain a reduced level of energy expenditure until they regain their previous level of obesity (220-223). This protective mechanism undoubtedly underlies the high recidivism rate in the treatment of human obesity (233,234). Thus, the best treatment for...

Potential Explanations For The Antiobesity Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet

Vegetarian diets can be lower overall in total energy intake. Also, the macronutrient composition and sources of macronutrients tend to be different in vegetarian diets, as compared to the omnivore diet. They are overall higher in dietary fiber and complex carbohydrates and lower in protein and fat. Their nutritional differences may partially account for the potential anti-obesity effect of vegetarian diets. Vegetarian diets tend to contain significantly more carbohydrates, particularly complex carbohydrates. A high carbohydrate meal may actually speed up the resting metabolic rate, while a high fat meal seems to have little effect on metabolism. There is some evidence that overfeeding with carbohydrates but not with fat provokes an insulin-mediated ther-mogenesis that acts to retard weight gain.34 Toth and Poehlman35 found that young male vegetarians had an 11 higher resting metabolic rate than non-vegetarians in spite of similar energy intakes. The major dietary difference between...

General Mechanisms for Potential Diabetes Treatments

Restriction of carbohydrate-containing foods is an obvious method of reducing alimentary absorption of carbohydrate. Foods that are high in soluble fiber (e.g., pulses) also slow absorption of carbohydrate (low glycemic index foods). Guar gum is a plant extract high in soluble fiber that has modest effects on glycemia in type 2 diabetes.62 Complex carbohydrates need to be digested by intestinal enzymes e.g., amylase to monosaccharide subunits before absorption by the intestinal brush border. Inhibition of certain disaccharidase enzymes found at the intestinal epithelium is the basis of the a1-glucosidase group of drugs, e.g., acarbose.63 Absorption of glucose from the intestinal lumen occurs by an active process by sodium-linked glucose transporters, which are also a potential drug target.

How the Healthy Digestive System Works

Digestion transforms fats into fatty acids and glycerol, proteins into amino acids, and carbohydrates into simple sugars, all to be used by the body as energy or as chemical building blocks. If a person overeats, all of the nutrients not used as energy or for maintaining body structure and function can be converted into body fat.

The role of ATP in energy storage

The cell derives its energy from chemical reactions arising from the catabolism of dietary carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The reactions occur sequentially as the nutrients are systematically oxidized through a pathway of intermediates, ultimately to carbon dioxide and water. All the reactions are enzyme catalysed and each exhibits a free energy change. Within a given catalytic pathway, some reactions may be energy-consuming. However, energy-producing reactions will prevail so there is a net gain in energy.

Diabetes And Protein

In cases of insulin deficiency, gluconeogenesis can be stimulated when protein intake does not exceed 20 of the total daily consumption. There is no increased risk of diabetic nephropathy although long-term consumption of greater than this amount has not been studied, the ADA recommends avoiding such excess protein intake. The safety and long-term efficacy of low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets remains unknown and has not been widely studied, although these diets can produce short-term weight loss and improve glycemic control. There is no evidence to support the theory that protein can slow the absorption of carbohydrates. When equal amounts of protein and glucose are ingested, the peak glucose response was the same as for the same amount of glucose ingested alone. The glycemic response to the carbohydrate content of the meal determines peak glucose response. Protein plus carbohydrates works just as well as carbohydrates alone to prevent hypoglycemia, with a 15 g carbohydrate snack...

From the Top The Mouth and Esophagus

In the mouth, food is mixed with saliva created by the salivary glands and begins to be broken down by ptyalin, the salivary enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars. Food passes from the mouth down the esophagus. At the end of the esophagus is a valve-like muscle (the lower esophageal sphincter), which allows food to pass from the esophagus to the stomach but normally does not allow food to go back up into the esophagus.

Chemogenomics Journals

Zurich Switzerland Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta. Monthly. ISSN 1367-5931. URL http www.chembiodiv.ch . (Bio)molecules are much more than simple building blocks (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates). They also serve as signals for internal regulation (hormones, neurotransmitters) and external communication (pheromones), weapons of defense or aggression (antibiotics and toxins), and tools to study nature (chemical probes, and reagents) or influence it (drugs and pesticides).

Overview of Urine Studies

The formation and excretion of urine by the kidneys is an essential body function. The kidneys excrete about 1500 milliliters of urine per day. Urine is about 95 water and 5 other constituents such as urea, electrolytes, amino acids, uric acid, creatinine, carbohydrates, bile pigments, and peptides. All substances found in the urine are also contained in the blood, but at different concentrations.

Patterns Of Fuel Metabolism In Tissues

Fats are much more energy-rich than carbohydrates, proteins, or ketones. Complete combustion of fat results in 9 kcaL g compared with 4 kcal g derived from carbohydrate, protein, and ketones. The storage capacity and pathways for utilization of fuels varies with different organs and with the nutritional status of the organism as a whole. The organ-specific patterns of fuel utilization in the well-fed and fasting states are summarized in Table 1-11-1.

Molecular Mechanisms Of Energy Expenditure Variability

The study of obesity in human individuals is inherently difficult. This is because of factors related to the disease itself, including heterogeneity, age-dependent penetrance, uncontrollable gene-environment interactions, and gene-gene interactions. Ultimately, proof that a putative mechanism of energy expenditure actually has a role in maintaining caloric homeostasis must come through genetic studies in animal models and then through the discovery of genetic variability for these mechanisms in humans. It is likely that further gene discoveries in animal models will add to this knowledge and continue to identify novel pathways that are important in nutrient partitioning and energy balance in humans. Evidence that these mechanisms actually promote or limit the development of obesity by stimulating or decreasing energy expenditure or nutrient partitioning must be demonstrated. Some of the significant advances in our understanding of the regulation of energy balance have stemmed from...

Diacylglycerol Transferase

Triglyceride synthesis has been implicated to occur through the acyl CoA diacylglycerol transferases (DGATs), enzymes that catalyze the final reaction in the glycerol phosphate pathway. DGAT enzymes are highly expressed in tissues associated with triglyceride synthesis. In humans, an abundant expression of DGAT enzymes has been observed in adipose tissue and liver (142,143). Dgat1- - mice are leaner than wildtype mice and have smaller adipocytes (120,144). When fed a high-fat diet, Dgat1- -mice are resistant to obesity and are protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis (120). These effects are likely caused in part by increased energy expenditure. Moreover, Dgat- - mice demonstrate an increase in spontaneous physical activity (145), increased expression of UCP-1 (144,146), and increased leptin sensitivity (144). An intact leptin pathway appears to be required for the effects of DGAT deficiency on energy metabolism. Although DGAT1 deficiency reverses obesity and insulin resistance...

The aGlucosidase Inhibitors

Acarbose (Precose) was approved for use in the United States in 1995 and miglitol (Glycet) was approved for use in 1996. Acarbose and miglitol do not decrease, but only delay the overall absorption of carbohydrates, thus producing a smaller postprandial peak in serum glucose concentrations, which results in a more prolonged carbohydrate absorption curve. This allows the P-cell to have a greater opportunity to match insulin responses to subsequent glucose demands, enabling the available insulin to better metabolize circulating glucose in the postprandial state. a-Glucosidase inhibitors are modestly effective in treating diabetes with hemoglobin A1-C reductions of 0.5-1 and can be particularly effective in patients who consume high-carbohydrate diets. Adverse effects of a-glucosidase inhibitors are gastrointestinal and include abdominal bloating, pain, diarrhea, and flatulence, occurring in up to 70 of patients. Although these adverse effects tend to dissipate in 4-6 weeks, they are to...

Assessing Weight History

Assessing previous weight-loss attempts is also important. some patients comment with frustration that diets never work for me. Often, though, when discussed in greater detail, previous efforts are revealed that produced an expected degree of weight loss (38 ) that was not maintained because of difficulties in sustaining the chosen weight-loss strategy. Acknowledging and exploring these previous weight-loss attempts can provide a useful platform for discussing the amount of weight that is commonly lost with a diet and exercise program and to explore strategies that were or were not successful previously as a prelude to a discussion of potential future approaches to treatment. it is common to hear a person say that he or she tried Weight Watchers or the Atkins diet and had some success, but then encountered difficulties. This kind of discussion allows the clinician to provide empathy and support around what are extremely common, almost expected, periods of relapse. In addition, the...

Lipid Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarian Or Vegans

The dominance of unsaturated fat to saturated fat of the vegetarian diet lowers total cholesterol and LDL-C levels. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) lauric (C12 O), myristic (C14 O), and palmitic (C16 O) are very hypercho-lesterolemic. Palmitic acid is the dominant fatty acid synthesized in the human body from excess calories that are converted to fat.42 Thus, the elderly vegetarian on a plant protein diet does not synthesize large amounts of palmitic acid. The SFA, stearic acid (C18 O), has no effect on blood lipoproteins and is considered neutral, with moderate amounts of dietary carbohydrate.43 Of all the added dietary fats, the most hypercholesterolemic are palm-kernel, coconut, and palm oils, and butter. SFA raise LDL-C by decreasing LDL receptor synthesis and activity. All fatty acids will lower fasting triglycerides if they replace carbohydrates in the diet.44 The most significant way to lower LDL-C and raise HDL is to replace carbohydrate with linoleic acid (C18 2), the...

AGlucosidase Inhibitors and Sulfonylurea

Introduced in 1996, miglitol and acarbose are currently approved for monotherapy and in combination with sulfonylureas, insulin, metformin, and the TZDs. Miglitol and acarbose do not cause malabsorption but delay the digestion of carbohydrates with subsequent absorption shifted to the more distal parts of the small intestine and colon. Miglitol and acarbose can be very effective in blunting postprandial plasma glucose elevations, allowing the P-cells enough time to increase insulin secretion. a-Glucosidase inhibitors should be taken with the first bite of food. Gastrointestinal effects of bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and stomach pain can occur early in therapy and diminish with time. These agents are ideally suited for those patients who ingest significant amounts of complex carbohydrates as adjunctive therapy to sulfonylureas and insulin sensitizers. Although they work on two different mechanisms in controlling postprandial sugar, sufficient data does not yet exist to give a...

Special Concerns For Athletes On Vegetarian Diets

Scandinavian researchers in the 1960s were the first to demonstrate that the ability to exercise at a high intensity was related to the pre-exercise level of muscle glycogen.1 Body glycogen stores play an important role in intense exercise (70-85 of peak aerobic power) that is either prolonged and continuous (e.g., running, swimming, and cycling), or of an extended intermittent, mixed anaerobic-aerobic nature (e.g., soccer, basketball, ice hockey, or repeated exercise intervals). Endurance athletes have been urged to ingest plant sources of carbohydrates to optimize muscle and liver glycogen stores.1,34,35 At the high intensities necessary for athletic training and competition, the metabolism of body carbohydrate stores provides the major fuel for muscle contraction, and, when these reach low levels, fatigue occurs.34,35 About 500-800 grams of carbohydrate per day (or 8-10 g kg body weight or 60-70 of energy intake) have been recommended for athletes training intensively for more than...

Shortacting Insulins And Their Analogs

This regimen has the advantage of being a practical way for reducing postprandial excursions and is particularly effective in patients who cannot or will not count carbohydrates before the meal. It is also ideal for individuals who frequently eat on the run or at restaurants where the exact carbohydrate amounts may be unknown. It is dependent, however, on the patient checking their glucose 1-2 hours postprandially. Noncompli-ance increases when the interval for glucose checking is greater than 1 hour The other option for postprandial excursion control is to administer insulin before the meal (the pre-emptive approach). This method is preferred by most endocrinologists and requires carbohydrate counting. With the pre-emptive approach, the patient administers a short-acting insulin 15 minutes before the meal (analog insulin) or 30-45 minutes before the meal (human regular insulin). For this method, 1 U of insulin is used to cover 10-15 g of carbohydrates, as directed by the physician.

Role of Diet in Preventing Breast Cancer

Most physicians today recommend well-balanced diets that are low in fat and calories and high in fiber, complex carbohydrates, fruits, and vegetables. These foods contain ingredients including antioxidants that may protect DNA from damage by absorbing and inactivating dangerous free radicals that are generated during normal metabolism. They also recommend physical exercise and weight management. Physicians may caution against excessive ingestion of alcohol since there is evidence that alcohol may increase breast cancer risk, especially in women who have no other risk factors. There is no question that physicians will recommend that their patients not smoke, and that they exercise regularly. These recommendations are for an overall healthy lifestyle, not just for prevention of breast cancer.

Arbohydrate Utilization Tests For Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

The medium that the carbohydrates are added must be free of sugars and must readily support the growth of freshly isolated gonococci. Cystine Trypticase agar (CTA), or equivalent, containing phenol red as an indicator of acid production may be used as a basic medium for carbohydrates utilization tests. As acid is produced (positive reaction), the medium changes from red to yellow. While this medium will support growth of practically all gonococci, some stains either do not grow or grow poorly. If sterile serum enrichment is added to enhance growth, it should first be inactivated at 56 C for 30 minutes. Calf or rabbit serum (five percent) is more suitable than sheep or horse serum because of the latter's strong maltase activity.

Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps

When the patient still does not achieve A1-C goals, the clinician must examine the frequency of the patient's monitoring and the patient's diet recording and knowledge of food intake, and determine whether the basal rate is set properly, whether the patient is using the proper correction bolus factor to treat blood sugars, and whether the patient is pre-emptively counting carbohydrates in appropriate fashion.

Endopeptidase Fragments For Pain Relief

The analgesic properties of the botulinum neurotoxins described above strongly support the view that if clostridial endopeptidases could be selectively targeted to peripheral nociceptive afferents in preference to other neurons, transmission of pain responses could be specifically and potently inhibited. The key to achieving selectively targeted clostridial endopeptidase-based analgesics is the identification of a suitable ligand able to specifically target nociceptive afferents and, following binding, to internalize with the clostridial endopeptidase. It has been reported that galactose-containing carbohydrates are selectively present on nociceptive afferents in the central and peripheral nervous systems relative to other neurons.59 60 Lectins from Erythrina species have been identified to bind such galactose-containing carbohydrates and the lectin from Erythrina cristagalli was selected to test the hypothesis that clostridial endopeptidases could be selectively retargeted to...

Measuring the Role of Soil Organic Matter in Aggregate Stability G Schroth

Total polysaccharides in soils can be determined by hydrolysis with concentrated sulphuric acid, followed by dilute sulphuric acid. Omitting the first step recovers labile polysaccharides, which are most of the polysaccharides other than cellulose. Detailed procedures are given by Lowe (1993). An increase of dilute acid-extractable carbohydrates was correlated with increased aggregate stability under cover crops in an orchard soil (Roberson et al., 1991). In two Oxisols from the Brazilian cerrado, both cellulosic and non-cellulosic polysaccharides were related to macroaggregation (Neufeldt et al., 1999). In other studies, a hot-water (80 C)-extractable carbohydrate fraction was found to be a more sensitive indicator than acid-hydrolysable carbohydrates for changes in soil organic matter quality and aggregation as affected by cropping systems (Haynes and Swift, 1990). The relative merits of dilute acid- and hot-water-extractable polysaccharides as indicators of soil organic matter...

Macroscopic Examination

Diet and degree of digestion are factors affecting the odor of a given sample. The normal offensive odor is due to indole, skatole, and butyric acid production. Stools from an individual who is on a meat diet have more of an odor than specimens collected from a person on a vegetable diet. An extremely foul odor is usually caused by the action of bacteria on undigested protein--such stools are normally alkaline in pH. A putrid odor is associated with lower bowel disorders. A rancid or sour smell is often associated with incomplete digestion, absorption of carbohydrates, gas fermentation, and the presence of fatty acids.

Classifying Carbohydratecontaining Foods Chemical Structure vs Glycemic Index

All dietary carbohydrates, regardless of chemical structure, can be digested or meta-bolically converted to glucose. Classification as simple sugar or complex carbohydrate is based on the premise that rates of digestion and absorption are dependent on saccharide chain length. Based on this classification system, recommendations to consume complex carbohydrate, often in the form of starchy foods, and to restrict sugary products are inherent to most conventional low-fat diets (17,18). However, the overlapping postprandial responses to foods containing carbohydrates that vary in saccharide chain length suggest that this system is overly simplistic and has limited physiological relevance (19,20). For example, Wahlqvist et al. (19) observed similar blood glucose and insulin responses in research subjects who consumed glucose as a monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, or polysaccharide. Bantle et al. (20) found that meals containing sucrose did not cause greater increases in blood...

Appearance Of Clostridia

Stained smears of growth usually reveal spores, except when CI. Perfringens is present. This species fails to sporulate on most media, especially those media containing carbohydrates. On blood agar, after 48 hours anaerobic incubation at 37 C, typical colonies of the various Clostridium species appear as described in Table 4-5. Most clostridia produce distinct beta hemolysis on blood agar. Clostridium perfringens however, may exhibit a target appearance or double zone of hemolysis. This is shown by a definite narrow 1 to 2 mm zone, immediately around the colonies, which is surrounded by a wide 4 to 5 mm zone of partial hemolysis. Although the microscopic and colonial morphology of certain clostridia may appear quite distinctive, final identification rests with the performance and interpretation of biochemical tests.

Brief History Of Vitamin

Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.), the father of Medicine said, ''Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.'' In the eighteenth century, it was found that the intake of citrus fruits can reduce the development of scurvy. In 1905, a British clinician, William Fletcher, who was working with the disease beriberi, discovered that taking unpolished rice prevented beriberi and taking polished rice did not. On the basis of this finding he concluded that if some special factors were removed from the foods, there are high chances to have diseases. The very next year, Dr. Fletcher's hypothesis became stronger when another British biochemist, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, found that foods contained necessary ''accessory factors'' in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and water.

Diseasespecific Guidelines

Despite the public health significance of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the dietary risk factors in the development of the disease.91 Although genetic predisposition is a determinant of insulin resistance, diet and lifestyle are thought to play a role in the development of the syndrome. Animal studies suggest that a high-fat, high-refined carbohydrate, low fiber diet (typical Western diet) induces insulin resistance and precedes other aspects of the syndrome including obesity. Epidemiological studies of groups such as the Pima Indians have shown decreased prevalence with high-carbohydrate native diets, and increased with Westernized high-fat diets. Risk of diabetes has also been associated with low fiber intake and large glycemic response of foods.92 Current dietary recommendations for persons with diabetes shown in Table 15.5 are similar to those advocated for health promotion in the general populace. They hinge on diet, exercise, and weight loss. Recommendations to decrease...

Efficacy Of Lowcarbohydrate Diets On Weight Loss

Five randomized studies conducted over 6 to 12 mo have compared the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet and a calorie-controlled, low-fat diet on weight and body composition in obese adults (8-13). (Note that the Samaha and Stern papers refer to the same study but report 6-mo and 12-mo data, respectively.) With the exception of one study that prescribed nutritional supplements including vitamins, minerals, essential oils, and chromium picolinate to the low-carbohydrate group but not the low-fat group (12), diet prescriptions in these studies were comparable (e.g., a low-carbohydrate diet containing Participants who consumed a low-carbohydrate diet lost significantly more weight than those who consumed a low-fat diet during the first 6 mo of treatment in four of the five studies (8-12). Despite differences at 6 mo, there were no differences in weight loss at 1 yr (8,11,13) (Table 1). Two studies (8,13) observed weight regain in both groups after 6 mo, with a greater regain in the...

Efficacy Of Lowcarbohydrate Diets On Fasting Lipids

A principal concern about low-carbohydrate approaches is that the high-fat content of the diet may adversely affect serum lipids and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. As discussed in a review by Volek et al. (31), preliminary findings challenge this argument. In studies that compared low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets over the course of 6 to 12 mo, there were no differences in total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations between groups (8-12,21). One study reported that the low-carbohydrate diet was less effective than the low-fat diet in reducing total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol at 1 yr (13). Only one study reported a small, transient increase in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol during the third month of a 1-yr treatment (8). Furthermore, compared with the conventional group, those in the low-carbohydrate group experienced greater improvements in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (8,12) and triglycerides (8-10,12). Only...

Efficacy Of Lowcarbohydrate Diets On Insulin Sensitivity And Glycemic Control

A limited number of studies have compared the effects of low- and high-carbohydrate diets on insulin sensitivity. Differences in methodology preclude a pooled analysis of measures of glucose and insulin (32) however, there is some evidence to suggest that low-carbohydrate diets are effective in improving insulin sensitivity and glycemic control (10,11,48). Samaha et al. (10) measured fasting glucose and mean glycosylated hemoglobin levels in nondiabetic and diabetic participants and insulin sensitivity (measured by the quantitative insulin sensitivity check QUICK ) in nondiabetic participants. Compared with the low-fat group, greater decreases in fasting glucose were observed in the low-carbohydrate group and a trend toward greater decreases in mean glycosylated hemoglobin levels was observed in diabetic participants consuming a low-carbohydrate diet after 6 mo. After adjustment for the amount of weight lost at 6 mo, the low-carbohydrate diet was no longer a significant predictor of...

Systemic Spreading of Silencing

Systemically and to cause silencing throughout the whole plant (Fig. 5). Phloem-mediated long-distance movement of the silencing signal follows the source-to-sink route used also for the transport of carbohydrates and most viruses. Analytical quantities of phloem sap can be harvested from cucurbits (Balachandran et al. 1997) and these saps could be analyzed for their contents in siRNAs. In fact a variety of small RNAs ranging from 18 to 25nt in length could be detected and cloned. Several of these corresponded to RNAs derived from cucurbit endogenes or a viral coat protein transgene, whereas others were identified as putative orthologs of A. thaliana miRNAs (Yoo et al. 2004). Furthermore, phloem sap derived from Cucumber yellow closterovirus-infected pumpkin contains large amounts of 20-21nt virus-derived siRNAs in both sense and antisense orientation.

Treatment And Nursing Care

Diet and activity should be adjusted to the clinical condition of the patient. The extremely ill patient will not want ambulation and may have nausea and vomiting so severe as to require supplements with 10 percent glucose solution. After gradually increasing ambulation, the patient may return to normal activity when he is asymptomatic and the liver tenderness has subsided. There is no specific medical treatment for viral hepatitis. Good general care is required. Pay attention to good oral hygiene, skin care, and elimination. Encourage fluids by mouth if nausea is not a problem. It may be necessary to entice the patient to eat. He may resist eating at first but eventually he will recover his appetite. When the appetite has returned to normal, a diet high in calories, proteins, and moderate carbohydrates is usually ordered. Fats may or may not be limited and vitamins may be given. For the patient with fulminant hepatitis, the common complications are hepatic coma, renal failure, and...

Pathogenicity Of The Genus Salmonella

Of the many Salmonella, species that produce acute gastroenteritis in man, S. typhimurium is the most frequent causative agent. Salmonella enteritidis is possibly the second most common cause. S. choleraesuis has also been implicated in gastroenteritis but to a lesser extent than either of the two previously mentioned species. Infections are characterized by fairly sudden onset (15 to 24 hours' incubation), and rather severe gastrointestinal distress with vomiting, diarrhea, and slight elevation of temperature. Recovery is rapid (1 to 3 days) since the intestinal tract is not usually invaded by the organisms. Symptoms result from the irritative action of acids and endotoxin upon the intestinal mucosa. The acids are formed by fermentation of carbohydrates by the responsible organisms. Endotoxins are released following death and cellular lysis of the etiologic agent. Only very rarely do infections develop into septicemia. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis are usually...

Other Technologies for Identification and Enumeration

A product of Biolog Inc. (Hayward, CA), this system characterizes pheno-types based on the oxidation or assimilation of carbohydrates, nitrogen sources, vitamins, and other substrates (Praphailong et al., 1997). After suitable inoculation, growth is evaluated for each well containing a specific substrate, either manually or by a plate-reader, and compared with database information. Although Praphailong et al. (1997) used the system to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kloeckera apiculata, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, these authors reported correct identification of Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Z. rouxii, and Pichia mem-branifaciens less than half of the time.

The Genus Escherichia

The genus Escherichia is often not thought of as including those organisms formerly referred to as the Alkalescens-Dispar group. The Alkalescens-Dispar strains closely resemble other Escherichia organisms in biochemical reactions and serologic complexity however, they neither ferment lactose nor produce gas from other carbohydrates. The typical Escherichia colonies are easily recognized and are characterized by their rapid fermentation of lactose with gas formation, and by the classic IMViC reactions. The Alkalescens-Dispar strains are now considered as separate serotypes of E. coli.

Other Research into New Medications

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, exist in the lining of the colon. These nutrients are produced during digestion of complex carbohydrates. The intestinal lining of individuals with ulcerative colitis may not produce these nutrients. In several small trials, thirty-five of a total of forty-one individuals benefited from SCFA enemas. SCFAs may also be useful for treatment of pouchitis (inflammation of the internal pouch surgically created to collect stool in those who have had their colon removed and the ileum reconnected to the rectum so they can defecate naturally).

Low Fat Diets Are Best for Preventing Weight Regain

Most successful weight-loss maintainers eat a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet that is low in total calories. Even though there is great controversy in the literature over the best diet composition for maintaining a healthy body weight, the overwhelming majority of the NWCR participants report eating a diet with less than 30 fat and that is high in carbohydrate to keep their weight off. It is important to note that we did not see all NWCR participants eating a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet to lose weight, suggesting that there can be more variety in weight-loss diets than in weight-loss maintenance diets.

Treatment Of Fractures

Treatment of fractures requires restoration of the parts to their normal positions (reduction of a fracture) and immobilization (fixation) of the parts for about 6 to 8 weeks until a union between the bony parts takes place. Reduction of the fracture may be either closed or opened. In a closed reduction, the bone segments are manipulated back into position without surgically exposing the bone. Usually, arch bars and wires are used for fixation. In an opened reduction, the fractured bone segments are surgically exposed, which allows the fracture to be reduced exactly because of unobstructed, direct vision. In opened reductions, fixation generally is accomplished by drilling holes on either side of the fracture and using wire or metal plates to hold the segments in close approximation. Careful postoperative care is needed. Patient instruction in proper diet is essential because often the teeth are immobilized in the closed position, called intermaxillary fixation (the jaws being wired...

Reduced FatCalorie Deficit Diets

Although there have been fewer carefully controlled studies of dietary manipulation in the pediatric age group, a number of points can be made in regard to the application of reduced calorie diets for children and adolescents. These diets usually suggest that approx 20 to 30 of the daily caloric intake should come from dietary fats and that saturated fats be minimized. A good source of protein, such as meat, poultry, or fish, should be included in the daily diet. Soft drinks and juices should be avoided where possible. Carbohydrates should be selected from among whole-grain products rather than highly refined products.

Nutrient Solutions Hyperalimentation Products

These products provide total parenteral nutrition for those patients who cannot, should not, or will not ingest the nutrients they need to live. It should be noted that a hyperalimentation can supply all the patient's nutritional needs by administration through the circulatory system. However, these solutions are quite expensive and, because of their nutrient content, are highly susceptible to bacterial growth. Most of the solutions contain high concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., dextrose). Because of this high concentration, the solutions must be administered through a large-bore vein. Just placing the needle or catheter into such a large-bore vein is a surgical procedure in itself. The hyperalimentation solution is prepared in the Pharmacy Sterile Products Section by a specially trained person. Extreme care must be taken to prevent microbial contamination. The preparation of the product itself is quite a task because the preparer must add ingredients in a certain sequence since...

The Effect Of A Vegetarian Diet On Performance

Two papers have been published on a study of eight well-trained male athletes in Denmark who consumed either a lacto-ovo-vegetarian or non-vegetarian diet for 6 weeks (cross-over design).31,32 Both diets consisted of 57 total energy as carbohydrates, 14 protein, and 29 fat. Maximal aerobic capacity, aerobic endurance time to exhaustion, muscle glycogen levels, and isometric strength were unaffected by changes in the diet. This study demonstrated that when macronutrient intake is held constant, switching between a vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet should not be expected to have an influence on exercise performance.

Carbohydrate Differences Between Omnivores And Vegetarians Or Vegans

Starch or complex carbohydrates, and both soluble and insoluble fiber, are carbohydrate molecules made up of the monosaccharide glucose. Free sugars of glucose, fructose, and sucrose (a disaccharide made up of glucose and fructose), along with starch, are the main source of energy in human diets, accounting for some 40 to 80 of human energy intake.75 In the starches and the fibers, the alpha- and beta-linkages at the glycoside carbon largely regulate whether the human digestive tract can digest them down to molecules of glucose. The indigestible carbohydrates are those that predominate with beta-linkages like the celluloses, and related

Chemical Analysis of Urine

Ketone urine testing is done to detect the presence of ketones, also called acetone or ketone bodies, in the urine. This condition, known as ketonuria, is a manifestation of abnormalities that limit the metabolism of carbohydrates. When carbohydrates cannot be metabolized, fats are metabolized to meet the body's energy needs and excessive amounts of ketones are produced and excreted into the urine. Ketonuria is detected by the reagent strip test and confirmed by the Acetest. Variations from Normal. Ketonuria is seen in a variety of conditions such as uncontrolled diabetes, anorexia, diets low in carbohydrates and high in fats, starvation, fasting, or excessive vomiting. Pregnancy and fever may cause ketonuria.

Chemical Testing of Feces

Chemical testing of feces is performed to detect the presence of occult blood, carbohydrates, bile, and trypsin. Screening for occult blood is the most common chemical test of feces and has been successfully used as an early detection test for colorectal cancer. However, there are may other abnormal conditions of the colon and rectum associated with occult fecal blood. A fecal carbohydrate test is performed to determine the carbohydrate content of feces. The test involves a Clinitest tablet on a sample of stool that has been emulsified with water. Excessive carbohydrates in feces indicate disorders related to absorption problems caused by metabolic or intestinal abnormalities. Bile is normally absent in the feces of adults. Its presence is related to the rapid movement of feces through the gastrointestinal tract and to hemolytic anemias. Trypsin is a pancreatic enzyme that is necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats. Trypsin should not be detected in the stool...

What Is Energy Density

Energy density values, which are influenced by the moisture content and macronutri-ent composition of foods, range from 0 kcal g to 9 kcal g (Fig. 1). The component of food with the greatest impact on energy density is water (7). Water has an energy density of 0 kcal g, as it contributes weight but not energy to foods. Fiber also has a relatively low energy density, providing 1.5 to 2.5 kcal g, and can lower the energy density of foods. On the opposite end of the energy density spectrum, fat is the most energy-dense component of food. Fat provides 9 kcal g, more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates or protein, which provide 4 kcal g. Although most high-fat foods have a high energy density, increasing the water content lowers the energy density of all foods, even those high in fat.

Postprandial Blood Sugar PPBS Two Hour Postprandial Blood Sugar 2hour PPBS

While many practitioners use the fasting blood sugar test results as a primary screen for diabetes mellitus, the postprandial blood sugar test (PPBS) is often used to confirm the diagnosis. Prior to the test the client fasts overnight and then consumes a meal that contains approximately 100 grams of carbohydrates, or drinks a special 100-gram carbohydrate drink. Two hours after eating, a venous blood sample is drawn and analyzed. The purpose of the PPBS test is to assess the body's response to the ingestion of carbohydrates in a meal.

Blood Urea Nitrogen BUN

Dietary habits and age can affect BUN levels. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets can decrease blood urea nitrogen, and a high-protein diet will increase BUN. Inefficient concentration of the urine can cause increased BUN levels in the elderly. Drugs that may cause increased BUN levels are cephalosporins, cisplatin, aspirin, tetracyclines, and thiazide diuretics. Streptomycin may cause a decreased BUN.

Prenatal Influences on Offspring

It is not surprising that major alterations in the metabolic milieu in which a fetus grows can markedly affect its development. Cross-fostering studies in which pups are placed with surrogate dams shortly after birth suggest that prenatal factors account for 61 to 96 of the variance in body weight gain in male and 35 to 92 in female offspring (68). Offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet during gestation became more obese than those whose dams were fed a low-fat diet, even if the high-fat offspring were fostered with dams on a low-fat diet throughout lactation (49,69). As suggested by human epidemio-logical studies, malnutrition during gestation can also result in obese offspring. To model these studies, Jones and colleagues (70,71) restricted the caloric intake of dams by up to 50 during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Male (but not female) offspring of these calorically restricted dams became hyperphagic, gained more weight beginning at weaning (71), and became obese as adults...

Physiological Activities

A puzzling observation made a decade ago was that glitazones, which were developed for the treatment of insulin resistance, are PPARg-selective ligands. The link between the promotion of adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage by PPARg and the antidiabetic effects of these compounds is not fully understood. One hypothesis is fat redistribution from muscle to adipose tissue more particularly to subcutaneous fat, which is itself more sensitive to insulin than visceral fat (Gurnell et al., 2003 Wajchenberg, 2000). Alternately, some data support the hypothesis that adiponectin, an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing property and a PPARg target gene, might be a crucial component connecting PPARg activation in the adipose tissue and the metabolic response of the peripheral organs (Gurnell et al., 2003). Other possibilities are the inhibition of hepatic neoglucogenesis or induction of a futile cycle, as mentioned above. Unexpectedly, PPARy+' heterozygous mice, rather than being prone to...

Collarettes In Rhizopus

Blastomyces Infection

By C. neoformans is not unusual in patients with AIDS. Initial laboratory suspicion is usually aroused by the presence of encapsulated yeast in the CSF. There also could be other microorganisms as well as noninfectious artifacts that superficially resemble yeast. While C. neoformans can be readily cultured, a rapid diagnosis can be made by detecting cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide in CSF or blood. Care must be taken to strictly control the test because rheumatoid factor may cross-react. Once the yeast is isolated, then specific stains as well as panels of assimilatory carbohydrates are available to definitively identify this organism as C. neoformans. The patient may also be infected with Pneumocystis carinii, but not in the central nervous system. P carinii has recently been reclassified as a fungus.

Timing of Inoculation

Additionally, early inoculation may result in production of acetic acid due to the presence of fermentable carbohydrates (Lafon-Lafourcade and Ribereau-Gayon, 1984 Ribereau-Gayon, 1985). However, Semon et al. (2001) did not observe excessive volatile acidities in wines inoculated early or during alcoholic fermentation with O. oeni, in agreement with other studies (Giannakopoulos et al., 1984 Beelman and Kunkee, 1985 Rodriguez et al., 1990 Edwards et al., 1991). Semon et al. (2001) noted that volatile acidities of Chardonnay wines inoculated with different strains of O. oeni prior to alcoholic fermentation were higher than those inoculated after completion of the fermentation, but not to undesirable concentrations (Table 8.4).

Hormonally related depression in midlife women Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

SSRIs are tolerated well in PMDD and rapidly reduce mood and somatic symptoms and improve functioning.32 Conversely, TCAs are no more effective than placebo.32 The recommended dose of SSRIs for PMDD is equal to or lower than the dose used for depression. Intermittent (luteal-phase) dosing has also been found to be effective.33 Exercising, limiting alcohol, caffeine, sodium, and simple carbohydrates, and stress-management techniques are also recommended.

Principle Paracrine Secretion Involved In Inhibition Of Gastric Secretions

The answer is c. (Guyton, pp 769-770.) Gas within the colon is derived primarily from fermentation of undigested material by intestinal bacteria to produce CO2, H2, and methane. The digestive tract normally contains about 150 to 200 mL of gas, most of which is in the colon (100-150 mL). Most of the gas in the stomach is derived from air swallowed during eating or in periods of anxiety. Gas is produced in the small intestine by interaction of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the intestinal and pancreatic secretions but does not accumulate because it is either reabsorbed or quickly passed into the colon. The amount of gas varies markedly from one person to another and is influenced by diet for example, ingestion of large amounts of beans, which contain indigestible carbohydrates in their hulls, will increase gas formation by intestinal bacteria. Diffusion of gas from the blood to the intestinal lumen is responsible for the N2 present in intestinal gas and is influenced by the...

Species of Plants Reported to Be Used Traditionally to Treat Diabetes

(Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Reduces glucose levels in blood of alloxan-treated mice (Alarcon-Aguilar et al., 2002) Extracts lower blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Extracts lower blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Decreases hyperglycemia in vivo (Roman Ramos et al., 1992) Reported to be hypoglycemic (Masso and Adzet, 1976) Cnicin lowers blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Extracts from leaves and flowers lower blood glucose in rats (Ivorra et al., 1989) Extracts lower blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Extract lowers blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Extracts from flowers lower glucose in glucose induced rats (Handa et al., 1989) Extracts lower blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Extract lowers blood glucose (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Used to treat diabetes (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Used to treat diabetes (Marles and Farnsworth, 1995) Chicory contains carbohydrates called fructans that modulate levels of insulin and...

Thiamine Diphosphate Activate The Aldehyde Is Transferred Beriberi

The answer is c. (Murray, pp 627-661. Scriver, pp 3897-3964. Sack, pp 121-138. Wilson, pp 287-320.) Certain amino acids and lipids are dietary necessities because humans cannot synthesize them. The energy usually obtained from carbohydrates can be obtained from lipids and the conversion of some amino acids to intermediates of the citric acid cycle. These alternative substrates can thus provide fuel for oxidation and energy plus reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Iodine is important for thyroid hormone synthesis, while calcium is essential for muscle contraction and bone metabolism. 329. The answer is b. (Murray, pp 627-661. Scriver, pp 2275-2296. Sack, pp 121-138. Wilson, pp 287-320.) An elevation of pyruvate and a deficiency of acetyl CoA suggest a deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). This multisubunit enzyme assembly contains pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihy-drolipoyl transacetylase, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, and two enzymes involved in regulation of the overall...

Acetyl CoA Carboxylase

ACC1 is expressed mainly in lipogenic tissue such as liver and adipose, and ACC2 in the heart and skeletal muscle (148). In humans both isoforms have central roles in fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation (149). Although mice lacking ACC1 die young, the ACC2-null mice have a normal life span and, compared with wild-type animals, demonstrate continuous oxidation of fatty acid and therefore have substantial reductions in fat stores and body weight (150,151). When fed a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet, the ACC2- - mice demonstrate a resistance to obesity and the development of diabetes (150). Primary adipocyte cells cultured from the ACC2-null mice fed either a normal or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet suggested that higher levels of fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis are major factors contributing to leaner ACC2- - mice (152). These findings indicate that pharmaceutical targets that inhibit ACC2 may prove to be important for the treatment of obesity and diabetes (149). An...

The Natural History Of Type 2 Diabetes

Although the triple disturbance of insulin resistance, increased hepatic glucose production, and impaired insulin secretion critical to the development of type 2 diabetes has received a great deal of attention in research, the etiological sequence of events resulting in the diabetic state is also of compelling interest . Accelerated hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis do not seem to exist in the state of impaired glucose tolerance, where insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion predominate in fact, these two abnormalities precede the onset of hyperglycemia in the diabetic type 2 phenotype. Prediabetic individuals have severe insulin resistance, whereas insulin secretion tends to be normal or increased in the prediabetic or impaired glucose tolerant state, including first-phase insulin responses to intravenous challenges. Thus, the type 2 diabetic phenotype evolves from the individual with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Although the genetic factors...

Angela P Makris phd rd and Gary D Foster phd

Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Weight Loss Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Fasting Lipids Efficacy of Low-Carbohyrate Diets on Imflammatory Biomarkers Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Lipoprotein Subfractions Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Blood Pressure Efficacy of Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Insulin Sensitivity Traditionally, the gold standard for obesity treatment has been the combination of a low-fat, low-calorie diet with regular physical activity and behavior therapy. This combination has been shown to be safe and effective however, the best dietary approach to weight loss continues to be a matter of debate among professionals and the public alike. Preliminary short-term findings suggesting that low-carbohydrate diets are effective in reducing body weight and do not appear to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease have generated interest in the low-carbohydrate approach and have spawned further research. This chapter reviews the most recent findings...

Plasma Coagulation Factor Tests

A high-fat diet may cause decreased prothrombin levels, whereas alcohol consumption may increase prothrombin levels. Many drugs can interfere with blood prothrombin levels. Medications that result in an increased level include chlorpromazine, methyldopa salicylates, barbiturates, and sulfonamides. Decreased levels are associated with anabolic steroids, digitalis, estrogens, and vitamin K.

Prologue

Protein was still the dominating interest. Did a vegetarian diet provide an adequate quantity of protein, and, if it did, would it provide the spectrum of essential amino acids in adequate amounts deemed essential for good nutrition Interest in fats and carbohydrates was, at most, slight. Since the plan of study required the determination of not only the total protein intake of each subject, but also the amounts derived from both plant and animal sources (lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume milk, eggs, and products derived from them), I decided to determine the amount of fat in the diets obtained from these same two sources.

Antigens

Proteins are direct gene products, whereas carbohydrates, such as the A and B antigens, are indirect products of genes (for example, A or B genes). The direct (protein) products of the A and B genes are enzymes that recognize and then transfer specific sugars from their nucleotide carriers to specific acceptor molecules. Thus, the A gene product is an N-acetyl-D-galactos-aminyltransferase and the B gene product in a D-galactosyltransferase.

Dekkera

Grown on malt agar containing 2 w v calcium carbonate, the colonies appear white to cream-colored, ranging from shiny to dull. Edges are entire or lobate (D. anomala) or entire and undulating (D. bruxellensis). Ascospores appear hat-shaped or somewhat spherical with tangential brims. All species ferment glucose, and other carbohydrates such as galactose, sucrose, maltose, and trehalose may be fermented depending on strain. The species found in wines, B. anomalus and B. bruxellensis, can be separated on the basis of lactose fermentation (most strains of B. anomalus ferment the sugar whereas B. bruxellensis does not) and succi-nate assimilation (most strains of B. anomalus assimilate the acid whereas B. bruxellensis does not). Both species can also assimilate nitrate and some Brettanomyces can use ethanol as a sole carbon and energy source (Silva et al., 2004).

Syndecan3

Syndecan-3, a neuronal heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), was recently identified as a modulator of feeding behavior by acting as a coreceptor for the melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus (240). Syndecan-3 expression is regulated by nutritional status ablation of the gene leads to reduced food intake and resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity (241). The finding was quite unexpected, but provides a novel mechanism for regulating body weight. Syndecan-3 is a member of a family of four type I transmembrane HSPGs that act as coreceptors for diverse cell surface receptors (242). As coreceptors, the syndecans modulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes. Syndecan function is regulated by transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational processes. Syndecans are also regulated by cleavage of their extracelluar domain in a process commonly referred to as shedding (243). Release of the extracellular domain can inactivate the signaling modulated by the...

Insulin

Insulin, a hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells, regulates metabolism of carbohydrates and is responsible for maintaining a constant blood glucose level. Insulin lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. Insulin levels can be measured by radioimmunoassay, a technique that uses radioactive substances to determine the concentration of specific blood constituents. Insulin levels are reported as microunits per milliliter ( xU mL).

Triglyceride

Elevated triglyceride levels increase the individual's risk of atherosclerosis, ASHD, and peripheral vascular disease. Other clinical conditions associated with increased triglycerides include all types of hyperlipidemia, poorly controlled diabetes, pancreatitis, kidney syndromes, and toxemia. Individuals with a history of myocardial infarction may show increased triglycerides for up to one year postinfarction. A high-carbohydrate diet may contribute to high triglyceride levels.

Oenococcus

Although only one species is assigned to this genus, O. oeni belongs to a heterogeneous group evidenced by wide variability in the fermentation of specific carbohydrates (Lafon-Lafourcade et al., 1983b Tracey and Britz, 1987 Davis et al., 1988 Kelly et al., 1989 Edwards et al., 1991). Most strains of O. oeni utilize l-arabinose, fructose, and ribose but not galactose, lactose, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, or xylose. By comparison, Lafon-Lafourcade et al. (1983b) noted that only 11 of the strains evaluated in their study utilized both fructose and glucose, contrary to the findings of others (Pilone and Kunkee, 1972 Beelman et al., 1977 Izugabe et al., 1985 Edwards et al., 1991). Davis et al. (1988) determined that only 55 of the strains studied fermented ribose, 27 fermented d-arabinose, and 45 fermented sucrose. Strain A-9 described by Chalfan et al. (1977) fermented glucose but not fructose. Although discrepancies in carbohydrate fermentations are probably the result of strain...

Pancreas

Acini are composed of pyramidal serous-type cells, each of which produces membrane-bound granules of mixed enzymes for secretion. Pancreatic emymes cleave proteins (e.g., trypsin, chy-motrypsin, carboxypeptidase, ejastase), carbohydrates (e.g., amylase), fats (e.g., lipase, lecithi-nase), and nucleic acids (e.g., ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease).

Metabolome analyses

Metabolites are characterized by a large number of chemically diverse analytes that vary over a wide concentration range, which presents unique challenges for analysis. Plants appear to produce a relatively more diverse range of metabolites, through their secondary metabolic pathways, and due at least in part to low enzyme specificities (Schwab, 2003). Microbes on the other hand seem to have less diversity in their metabolome composition. A recent structure-based exploration of the E. coli metabolome (Nobeli et al., 2003) revealed that a majority (85 ) of the metabolites have a molecular weight of less than 500, with nucleotides, carbohydrates and amino acids being the most prominent species. Techniques for the measurement of metabolites per se have been in existence since the early days of biochemistry. Usually this is accomplished by isolating the metabolite of interest from the sample milieu and analysing it. However, when the objective in metabolome analysis is to capture changes...

Digestive System

The stomach is a muscular, bag-like organ. It is located in the upper left part of the abdomen. At its upper end, the stomach connects with the esophagus. At its lower end, the stomach connects with the small intestine. The stomach secretes several enzymes and an acid which aid in the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The churning action of the stomach's wall, the action of the enzymes, and the action of the acid reduce the food to a semifluid mass called chyme. The stomach does not empty this mass all at once. At intervals, it squirts chyme into the small intestine. By the time chyme leaves the stomach, the food is about half digested.

Barry E Levin md

Epidemiological studies suggest that maternal undernutrition, obesity, and diabetes during gestation and lactation can all produce obesity in offspring. Animal models provide a means of assessing the independent consequences of altering the pre- versus postnatal environments on a variety of metabolic, physiologic, and neuroendocrine functions that lead to the development of offspring obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. During the gestational period, maternal malnutrition, obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and psychological, immunological, and pharmacological stressors can all promote offspring obesity. Normal postnatal nutrition can sometimes reduce the adverse impact of some of these prenatal factors but may also exacerbate the development of obesity and diabetes in offspring of dams that were malnourished during gestation. The genetic background of the individual is also an important determinant of outcome when the perinatal environment is perturbed. Individuals...

Chemical Methods

The plant, faunal and microbial residues from which soil organic matter is derived consist of identifiable chemical substances such as carbohydrates, lignin, fats, waxes and proteins. These are decomposed and transformed in the soil through microbial and faunal action, and new substances are synthesized. The chemical composition and transformations of soil organic matter are studied with a number of specialized techniques, including chromatographic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and analytical pyrolysis. These methods have been reviewed by Stevenson and Cole (1999) and Skjemstad et al. (1997), and recent results from tropical soils are given by Golchin et al. (1995), Skjemstad et al. (1997) and Zech et al. (1997). Results of such studies are potentially very relevant to agroforestry research, but their application is restricted to specialized laboratories.

Physical Preparation

While preparing for the exam, have good solid meals. Protein, carbohydrates, and some fats are all important. However, do not overeat or eat very late, since this will impair your sleep. Breakfast on the big day should be no more than cereal with fruit, a bagel, toast, or another complex carbohydrate source. Avoid heavy breakfasts to avoid the subsequent crash that many people experience at a crucial time in the first or second question block Likewise, keep sugar or simple carbohydrate equivalents, such as candy, to a minimum at this time. Hard candy, not chocolate, can be useful as a pick-me-up during the examination. If you normally drink coffee in the morning, drink coffee the morning of the exam. You don't want to trigger a caffeine withdrawal headache. Eat light lunches, salads, simple sandwiches, and nonalcoholic drinks to avoid after-lunch sleepiness.

Filtration

Sterilization by filtration represents a mechanical means of removing bacteria from liquids. When the relative size of bacteria and spores is recalled, it should be apparent that the porosity of the filter that is used must be extremely small. The Seitz filter and the membrane filter are examples of very fine filters that are used in the bacteriology laboratory. The use of these filters is recommended for the sterilization of liquids containing thermolabile substances such as carbohydrates, urea, and sera.

The amino acid pool

Dietary protein of plant or animal origin is hydrolysed to constituent amino acids by enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. A portion of the absorbed amino acids is retained by the intestinal cells for synthesizing digestive enzymes and other compounds. The remaining amino acids enter the bloodstream and are transported to the liver. Here, a portion of them is used to synthesize several plasma proteins and another portion is conveyed to extrahepatic tissues for the purpose of protein synthesis. The liver also metabolizes amino acids, converting the nitrogen atoms into urea and the carbon skeleton into intermediates utilized in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. In addition to the hydrolysis of dietary protein, most of the tissue

Exchangers

The gastrointestinal exchanger is highly complex and, actually, is divided in two sections the intestinal exchanger, with its capillary network, and the hepatic sinusoids or hepatic capillaries, both connected by the portal vein. The portal blood, especially after a meal, is well loaded with nutritive substances (carbohydrates, aminoacids and lipids). Transport from the intestinal lumen to the capillary blood is essential for life. This is the absorptive function of the intestine. cm in the duodenal-jejunal angle, decreasing gradually to 2 cm at the beginning of the large intestine. The ileocecal valve marks the limit between both intestinal sections. After that, the large intestine becomes much larger in diameter. Several hundred grams of carbohydrates are being absorbed per day plus 100 or more grams of fatty acids, including monoglycerides and cholesterol, 50 to 100 g of aminoacids, 50 to 100 g of different ions (such as Na, K, Mg and the like) and 8 to 10 liters of water. However,...

Weight Reduction

Carbohydrate restriction leads to ketosis, with fat from adipose tissue being the major source of energy. Ketosis can suppress appetite and have a diuretic effect. The low-carbohydrate diets are usually associated with quick weight loss in the first 1-2 weeks. A study comparing low-carbohydrate diets (< 30 g day) with a low-fat, calorie-restricted diet in 132 severely obese patients with a mean BMI of 43 and a high prevalence of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome showed that after 6 months, the 43 patients still on the low-carbohydrate diet lost a mean of 5.8 kg, compared with 1.9 kg lost by the 36 patients still on the low-fat, low-calorie diet. At least for the first 6 months of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, there seem to be no adverse effects on risk factors for atherosclerosis, although carotid intimal thickening can occur if high-saturated fat alternatives to carbohydrates are chosen. Ketosis can cause bad breath and prolonged ketosis may increase the risk of osteoporosis...

Fecal Tests

Fecal tests involve the analysis of the physical, chemical, microscopic, and microbiologic properties of feces. Physical examination of feces includes an analysis of the amount, color, consistency, odor, and shape. Chemical testing of feces includes chemical analysis to identify occult blood, carbohydrates, fats, bile, and trypsin. Microscopic testing of feces includes a microscopic examination to determine the presence of leukocytes, fats, and parasites. Microbiologic testing is presented in Chapter 7.

Caries

Caries are caused by a combination of diet (particularly sticky carbohydrates), oral bacteria (Streptococcus mutans), and the surface of the tooth. Presentation. Large lesions are seen on visual inspection as cavitations. Nursing bottle caries are easily seen and result from repeated exposure to carbohydrates through bottle feedings. Pain frequently accompanies cavities.

Fatty Acid Synthase

Fatty acid synthase is a large multienzyme complex in the cytoplasm that is rapidly induced in the liver after a meal by high carbohydrate and the concomitant rise in insulin levels. It contains an acyl carrier protein (ACP) that requires the vitamin pantothenic acid. Although malonyl CoA ls the substrate used by fatty acid synthase, only the carbons from the acetyl CoA portion are actually incorporated into the fatty acid produced. Therefore, the fatty acid is derived entirely from acetyl CoA.

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