Exercises Lesson

The following exercises are to be answered by marking the lettered response that best answers the question or best completes the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises at the end of the lesson and check your answers. 1. List the four major signs of inflammation. 2. Sometimes, in addition to the four signs above, there is a fifth sign of inflammation. 3. List four beneficial...

Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis

Initial exposure to the herpes simplex virus results in a generalized oral inflammation followed by vesicle formation and subsequent ulceration. Systemic symptoms of generalized illness accompany this initial attack. Most individuals have their primary exposure to this virus as infants however, this disease may also occur in young adults and elderly patients. This condition is contagious. Healing occurs spontaneously with the virus remaining in the nerve tissue, lying dormant in a latent form....

Causes

In general, dental caries occurs because of improper or poor oral hygiene. The destruction of dental tissue by caries, however, is governed somewhat by the susceptibility of the teeth. Little is known about susceptibility or resistance to caries, but the degree of susceptibility may be influenced by certain factors including diet, oral hygiene, and some systemic diseases. Study of the direct cause of dental caries is very complex. Only two theories of its cause are considered here. a....

Gingivitis

Gingivitis (figures 1-4 and 1-5) is an inflammation of the gingival tissues. It is characterized by the typical signs and symptoms of inflammation-swelling (edema), redness, pain, increased heat, and, sometimes, disturbance of function. Most patients that appear to have clinically healthy gingiva also have minute areas of inflammatory activity. The inflammation is caused by the toxic substances produced by bacteria in the mucinous plaques adjacent to the gingival tissue. Direct irritation from...

Moniliasis Or Candidiasis

Moniliasis of the oral mucosa membranes, also called candidiasis or thrush, is a surface infection resulting from a yeast-like fungus, Candida albicans. The lesion (figure 1-14) appears as deposits of pearly-white, roughened-surface plaque, which leaves a raw, red, painful surface when scraped off. Its treatment involves prescribing antifungal drugs. When natural resistance is lowered, this infection may appear and grow. Because it takes advantage of such conditions, moniliasis is known as an...

Median Rhomboid Glossitis

Median rhomboid glossitis (figure 2-9) appears as a smooth, flat, depressed or elevated nodular area on the dorsum of the tongue just anterior to the circumvallate papillae. It is usually an oval or diamond-shaped area and stands out because the area has no filiform papilla. Median rhomboid glossitis is believed to be caused by a Candida infection, often with secondary hyperplasia. Treatment may include the use of an antifungal drug and surgical removal of the hyperplastic tissue. Figure 2-9....

Recurrent Herpes Simplex Secondary Herpetic Lesions

The herpes simplex virus may be reactivated (recurrent) in an extraoral form on the lips or, inside the mouth, in an intraoral form. a. Extraoral Herpes. Cold sore blisters, also called herpes labialis (figure 1-8), are often associated with colds, trauma, fatigue, fevers, and prolonged exposure to the sun and the wind. The common site of occurrence is on the lips at the border with the skin of the face (called the vermilion border). The lesions usually consist of clusters of small vesicles...

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is a severe condition caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV . Infected patients may have a variety of manifestations ranging from no symptoms at all to severe immunodeficiency and life-threatening secondary infectious diseases. There are three stages to this disease--asymptomatic infection HIV, AIDS-related complex ARC , and AIDS. The serum test for the HIV antibody is not necessarily positive in all three stages of HIV infection....