Developmental Anomalies

Geographic Tongue

This condition is characterized by the failure of the two halves of the tongue to unite. It rarely occurs. The cleft tongue is usually normal in size, but its function is greatly impaired. Treatment is surgical, if indicated. b. Ankyloglossia. In ankyloglossia (figure 2-10), the tongue is restricted in its movements by a strand of mucosa (lingual frenum) that attaches the anterior third of the tongue to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingival mucosa. Persons...

Lichen Planus

Lichen planus (figure 1-12) is a common inflammatory disease that is observed frequently on oral mucosa. Oral lesions appear on adults as a lacy network of slender white lines, primarily on the buccal mucosa. Initiating factors may be herpes simplex, various bacterial and fungal agents, drugs (penicillin and barbiturates), vaccinations, or radiation and chemotherapy. On the skin, lichen planus is observed as a bilateral symmetrical area on the flexor muscle surfaces of the wrists and lower leg....

Pulpal Reaction To Dental Caries

When dental decay reaches a depth in the dentin that is near the pulp tissue inside of the tooth, the pulp tissue can become inflamed. The inflammation causes the blood vessels to swell and release fluid into the extra cellular spaces. This swelling is limited by the hard walls of the pulp chamber and root canals and, as a result, severe pain may result because of the constriction. Pus can accumulate within the diseased pulp tissue that further accelerates the pathologic...

Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), commonly called trench mouth or Vincent's disease, is a bacterial infection. It is usually associated with poor oral hygiene, smoking, and or psychological stress, but may be seen in patients with good oral hygiene. a. Cause. Although the exact cause of the disease is unknown, it is accompanied by an increase in the numbers of two organisms--the fusiform bacillus and medium-size spirochetes (Vincent's spirillum). It is doubtful that NUG is readily...

Erythema Multiforme

Erythema multiform (figure 1-11) is an acute inflammatory condition that is easily observed because of a redness of the mucosa or the skin. It occurs in many forms on various parts of the body. Young adults are most commonly affected. The oral mucous membranes are frequently involved, including vesicle rupture that leaves painful oral ulcerations. The lips often exhibit crusted ulcerative lesions. Lesions appear rapidly (within 10 to 14 days) and persist several days or longer. The symptoms are...

Caries In Enamel

The organisms that produce acid are contained in mucinous plaques that adhere to the surface of the enamel. Common sites of plaque adherence are pits, fissures, interproximal areas, and along the free margin of the gingiva, particularly on the facial surface of the tooth. The enamel rods of a tooth are cemented together by a substance that dissolves more readily than the rods themselves and, thus, according to the acidogenic concept, the first effect in enamel caries is probably the dissolution...

Exercises Lesson

The following exercises are to be answered by marking the lettered response that best answers the question or by completing the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises at the end of the lesson and check your answers. 1. A fracture in which one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent is a a. Compound-comminuted fracture. 2. A fracture that...

Primary Herpetic Gingivostomatitis

Initial exposure to the herpes simplex virus results in a generalized oral inflammation followed by vesicle formation and subsequent ulceration. Systemic symptoms of generalized illness accompany this initial attack. Most individuals have their primary exposure to this virus as infants however, this disease may also occur in young adults and elderly patients. This condition is contagious. Healing occurs spontaneously with the virus remaining in the nerve tissue, lying dormant in a latent form....

Causes

In general, dental caries occurs because of improper or poor oral hygiene. The destruction of dental tissue by caries, however, is governed somewhat by the susceptibility of the teeth. Little is known about susceptibility or resistance to caries, but the degree of susceptibility may be influenced by certain factors including diet, oral hygiene, and some systemic diseases. Study of the direct cause of dental caries is very complex. Only two theories of its cause are considered here. a....

Gingivitis

Gingivitis (figures 1-4 and 1-5) is an inflammation of the gingival tissues. It is characterized by the typical signs and symptoms of inflammation-swelling (edema), redness, pain, increased heat, and, sometimes, disturbance of function. Most patients that appear to have clinically healthy gingiva also have minute areas of inflammatory activity. The inflammation is caused by the toxic substances produced by bacteria in the mucinous plaques adjacent to the gingival tissue. Direct irritation from...

Moniliasis Or Candidiasis

Moniliasis of the oral mucosa membranes, also called candidiasis or thrush, is a surface infection resulting from a yeast-like fungus, Candida albicans. The lesion (figure 1-14) appears as deposits of pearly-white, roughened-surface plaque, which leaves a raw, red, painful surface when scraped off. Its treatment involves prescribing antifungal drugs. When natural resistance is lowered, this infection may appear and grow. Because it takes advantage of such conditions, moniliasis is known as an...

Median Rhomboid Glossitis

Glossitis Overview

Median rhomboid glossitis (figure 2-9) appears as a smooth, flat, depressed or elevated nodular area on the dorsum of the tongue just anterior to the circumvallate papillae. It is usually an oval or diamond-shaped area and stands out because the area has no filiform papilla. Median rhomboid glossitis is believed to be caused by a Candida infection, often with secondary hyperplasia. Treatment may include the use of an antifungal drug and surgical removal of the hyperplastic tissue. Figure 2-9....

Recurrent Herpes Simplex Secondary Herpetic Lesions

Recurrent Herpes Simplex Impetigo

The herpes simplex virus may be reactivated (recurrent) in an extraoral form on the lips or, inside the mouth, in an intraoral form. a. Extraoral Herpes. Cold sore blisters, also called herpes labialis (figure 1-8), are often associated with colds, trauma, fatigue, fevers, and prolonged exposure to the sun and the wind. The common site of occurrence is on the lips at the border with the skin of the face (called the vermilion border). The lesions usually consist of clusters of small vesicles...

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS is a severe condition caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV . Infected patients may have a variety of manifestations ranging from no symptoms at all to severe immunodeficiency and life-threatening secondary infectious diseases. There are three stages to this disease--asymptomatic infection HIV, AIDS-related complex ARC , and AIDS. The serum test for the HIV antibody is not necessarily positive in all three stages of HIV infection....