Anatomy Of A Patent Document

A patent document begins with a first page that identifies the owner and inventor of the claimed invention and the dates of filing, publication, and grant. The front page usually has a short abstract of the invention and, when appropriate, a chemical structure or exemplary drawing. Figure 2 is the first page of a typical U.S. patent, U.S. 5,250,534, covering sildena-fil as a new chemical entity.

Patent applications are assigned a serial number when filed and a document number when they are published. These numerical identifiers are printed on the face of the patent, as is the serial number of the priority application when there is one. Additional bibliographic information may include the name of the patent examiner, the name of the patent agent or attorney handling the application, and patent classification codes that define the field of technology claimed. Patent classification codes were the original search tools,

United States Patent i»i

Bell et al.

US0052505J4A (ill Patent Number: [45] Date of Patent:

5,250,534 Oct. 5,1W3


(75] Inventors: Andrew S. Bell; Darid Brown;

Nicholas K. Terrett, all of Groton, Conn.

Related U.S. Application Dili

[63] Connnutlion of Ser. No. 717,227, Jun. IS. 1991, abandoned

[30] Foreign Application Priority Dili Jan. 20. 1990 fGB] United Kingdom__________9013750

[58] Field of Search 544/262; 514/258

(56] References Ci led


4,052.390 10/1977 Broughlon et al, 544/118


10956SS S/19J8 Australia .

3309659 10/1939 Australia .

020118S 12/1986 European Pai Off .

054714Î 12/1919 European Pal. Off. .

0349239 1/1990 European Pal Off .

0351058 1/1590 European Pal. Off. .

0352960 1/1950 European Pal. Off. .


Hamilton, el al„ J. Med. Chem., 30, 91-96 (1967).

Primary Examiner—Nicholas S. RLuto Assistent Examiner—Y. N. Gupta.

Attorney, Agent, or Firm—Peter C, Richardson; Gregg C. Benson; James T. Jones


Compounds of the formula

wherein Ri is H, Ci-Cj alkvl, Cj-Cs cycloalkyl or Ci-Cj perfluoroalkyl; R is H, Ci-Ce alkyl optionally substituted by OH, Ci-Cj alkoxy or Cj-Ct cycloalkyl, or C|-Cj perfluoroalkyl; Rs is Ct-Ce alkyl, Cj-Cs alke-nyl, Cj-Cg alkynyl, Cj-Ct cycloalkyl, Ci-C^perfluoro-alkyl or (Cj-Cs cycloalkyljci-cs alkyl; R4 liken together with the nitrogen atom to which it is atlachcd completes a pyrrolidinyl, piperitlino, morpholino, or 4-N-(R*)-piperaiinyl group; R! is H, C,-C. alky!, C1-C3 alkoiy, NR'RS, or CONR'RS; R> is H. C|-Ct alky], {Ci-Cj alkoiy) Cj-Ce alkyl, hydroxy Cj-C6 alkyl. (R'RSNfo-Co alkyl, (RtR!NCO)C,-C4 alkyl, CONR7R», CSN'R'R'1 or C(NH)NR'R>; R'and R«arc each independently H, C|-Cj alkyl, (Ci-Cs alkoiy>C-2 C.« alkyl or hydroxy C>-C* alkyl; and pharmaccvni-catly acceptable salts thereof, are selective cGMP PDE inhibitors useful in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as angina, hypertension, heart failure and atherosclerosis.

8 Claims, No Drawings

Figure 2 Front page of a United States patent covering Viagra®, US 5,250,534.

intended for manual searching through classified stacks of paper documents. They are now one of many tools for patent searching online. The owner of the patent rights, called the patentee, may be the inventor of the claimed invention or the organization where the research was done. Ownership of patent rights is routinely assigned to an inventor's employer, and the terms patentee and assignee are often used interchangeably when referring to patents. Data on the front page of a patent are labeled with Internationally agreed Numbers for the Identification of Data (INID) codes, which are numerical identifiers that signify the legal significance of the datum. INID codes are applied by national or regional patent offices according to standards established by the World International Property Office (1), and enable one to identify the meaning of the data without understanding the language of the patent document. References cited by the patent examiner during processing of the patent application may be on the front page of the patent or in a search report appended to the patent specification. The body of the patent specification, the disclosure, provides a detailed description of the background of the invention, the differences between the claimed invention and the prior art, the general method for utilizing the invention and specific examples. The specification also discloses the nature of the invention and provides definitions for terms used in the patent and examples of the methods for performing a claimed process and/or making and using the new invention. Claims are the heart of the patent; they set the protection limits and boundaries of the invention. The right to exclusivity is limited by the terms of the claim, which can be broad or narrow, but must not include anything previously known or inherently obvious to the prior art. The claims either follow or precede the detailed disclosure.

Patents differ from articles written for scholarly journals in that the disclosure is designed to support claims of the broadest possible scope so as to protect more than the specific embodiment the patent owner plans to commercialize. In addition to a description ofthe synthesis ofnew molecular entities and laboratory tests that demonstrate their usefulness, a patent specification will often describe and claim a broad genus of compounds, stating that all members of the genus will be useful in a wide range of therapies. The genus of compounds is typically represented as a Markush structure,b shown as a molecular substructure with variable substituents. Figure 3 shows the broadest generic claim covering sildenafil and its salts in U.S. patent 5,250,534.

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