Glossary

Cost minimization analysis (CMA)—The outcomes of two or more interventions being compared are taken to be identical, perhaps on the basis of previously published results or original data, which provides no evidence of a difference in outcomes, and the interventions in question are compared on the basis of their relative costs.

Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA)—Focuses on a single outcome measure, often one specific to the disease in question, with the results expressed in terms of cost per unit of health outcome, e.g., cost per 10% reduction in LDL cholesterol level, cost per case detected, and cost per life year gained.

Cost utility analysis (CUA)—Uses an outcome measure, which combines longevity and quality of life, usually the quality adjusted life year (QALY), with results expressed in terms of cost per QALY gained.

Cost benefit analysis (CBA)—Applies a monetary value to both the costs and the health outcomes of an intervention, with the results expressed as a net benefit (the difference between the monetary value of outcomes and costs), or a ratio of benefit to cost.

Cost consequences analysis (CCA)—A range of outcome measures is presented alongside costs but no ratio of cost per unit of outcome is presented.

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