Genomics has other potential applications in addition to its use in target identification. Genomics is beginning to offer the possibility of more precise patient stratification and segmentation. Minute differences among DNA sequences within individuals or certain populations can have an impact on the effectiveness of certain treatments or the likelihood of contracting a certain disease. Understanding the way in which these specific sequences affect the biochemistry of the individual is the key to developing new drugs and therapies specifically targeted to those individuals. This is the field called pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics holds great potential for speeding up clinical trials, creating more targeted, less toxic drugs, and reducing costs incurred now by overtreating patients who might not need, or are unlikely to benefit from, specific drugs.

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