International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). URL: http://www.ispor.org (accessed October 2005). The mission of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research is to translate pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research into practice to ensure that society allocates scarce healthcare resources wisely, fairly, and efficiently.
London School of Economics (LSE) Worldwide Survey on Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Structures in Individual Countries. URL: http://pharmacos.eudra.org/g10/p6.htm (accessed October 2005). The surveys, commissioned by the DG Enterprise of the European Commission, review pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement structures in the European Union and a number of other countries world-wide.
Health technology assessment organizations are the government agencies that apply pharmacoeconomic data to make marketing authorization, pricing, and reimbursement decisions.
The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA). URL: http://www.inahta.org/inahta_ web/index.asp (accessed October 2005). The INAHTA was established in 1993 and currently has 41 member agencies from 21 countries. Many countries have, or are in the process of, setting-up similar agencies. From the INAHTA Web site you can access profiles for each of the member agencies. For example, the websites for the U.S.A., U.K., Swedish and German agencies are given below.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Policy (AHRQ). U.S.A. URL: http://www.ahrq.gov/ (accessed October 2005).
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). U.K. URL: http://www.nice.org.uk (accessed October 2005).
The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care. Sweden. URL: http://www.sbu.se/www/index.asp (accessed October 2005).
The Office of Health Economics (OHE). URL: http://www. ohe.org (accessed October 2005). The Office of Health Economics, located in London, U.K., provides independent research, advisory, and consultancy services on policy implications and economic issues within the pharmaceutical, healthcare, and biotechnology sectors.
Center for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). University of York, York, U.K. URL: http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/ crddatabases.htm (accessed October 2005). CRD aims to provide research-based information about the effects of interventions used in health and social care. It helps to promote the use of research-based knowledge. CRD offers three databases: NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.
World Health Organization Regional Office Europe. URL: http://www.who.dk/pharmaceuticals/reimbursement (accessed October 2005). The health technologies and pharmaceuticals program helps countries analyze developments and identify successful strategies to contain costs and optimize use. In eastern countries of the WHO European Region, this means helping to set up and support pricing systems. In the western countries, developments in the pharmaceutical market and their implications for health are discussed in an annual meeting with policy-makers and health insurance institutions under the Pricing and Reimbursement Information Network on Medicines in Europe (PRIME umbrella).
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