Curing Mrs

To return to Chen Guofu's history of Changshan, after receiving the prescription, Chen Guofu described how he tested this prescription on a visitor to his family, Mrs. Chu, who was sick with malaria. When she recovered after taking this prescription, Chen Guofu became keenly interested in it and asked the director of the school clinic to undertake a program of systematic experimentation on the Chinese drugs contained in the Changshan mixture. Chen Guofu arranged for a clinical trial to be...

Toxicological Effects And Impact On Nontarget Organisms

As for other insecticides, like bacterial larvicides (WHO, 1996), characterisation of insecticidal agents, even if derived from natural sources like plants, needs to be linked to toxicological evaluations and impact on the environment. However, considering the often complex chemical makeup of plant products, such evaluations may be time-consuming and costly. It can be argued, though, that the need for careful toxicological evaluation increases with identification, isolation, registration, and...

Contemporary Research On D Febrifuga And Its Chemical Constituents

The modern medical analysis of Changshan began early in the 20th century. From the roots of D. febrifuga, Chinese chemists isolated two compounds (the dichroines), one of which later proved to control avian malaria. The leaves of D. febrifuga were also found to contain antimalarial chemicals the febrifugines one of which is identical to one of the dichroines. The alkaloids identified as the active principles of D. febrifuga were isolated in China by Jang et al. (1946, 1948) reported on in the...

Laboratory Studies

Deet is the active ingredient of most commercially available skin repellents and is the most effective insect repellent available at this time (Fradin and Day, 2002). It should be the standard against which the effectiveness of alternative repellents is judged (WHO, 1996). It is always preferable to conduct tests on human volunteers for greatest accuracy, provided that laboratory-reared mosquitoes are used to eliminate the risk of disease transmission, and the volunteers selected show mild or...

Cardamom And Changshan

As noted in Table 4.1, there are many classical antifebrile formulations containing Changshan other than that used to cure Mrs. Chu. One simple formula that is currently under study (Jiang, 2003) adds cardamom seeds to D. febrifuga to offset nausea. The seeds of two species of cardamom have been used traditionally 1. Cao Guo or Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire 2. Sha Ren (grains-of-paradise fruit) or Amomum vilosum Lour. Both A. tsaoko and A. vilosum are used in the treatment of abdominal pain...

Background

As the previous chapter has shown, plants are widely used for the treatment of malaria throughout the Tropics. The questions to be addressed here are which plant species are used, how widely they are used, which should be prioritised for future research, and which should be prioritised for conservation measures. To date, there has been no systematic overview of the literature to assess which plant species are the most important candidates for further research and conservation. Natural selection...

Scientific Research On Nationally Produced Drugs

In 1945, the leading Chinese scientific magazine Kexue (Science) began publication of a series of special issues to review the past three decades of development of each scientific discipline in China. In the issue on The Recent 30 Years of Scientific Research in Chinese Drugs, the author of the review praised the research on Changshan as being second only to the world-famous work on mahuang (ephedrine) in the 1920s, as the major achievement of Chinese drugs studies in the 1940s (Zhang, 1949)....

Bioassay Of Plant Extracts For Antimalarial Activity

In malaria chemotherapy, most research has been aimed at searching for drugs that could kill the malaria parasite in the erythrocytic stage of its development. Methods used for evaluating the efficacy of drugs, i.e., basic assessment of antiplasmodial activity or mechanism-based assays, have therefore been designed to meet this purpose. There are basic tools used in a primary screening to assess the ability of herbal antimalarials to kill the malaria parasite in the asexual stage. Regarding the...

Preparation Of Extracts For Antimalarial Screening

A wide range of methods for extraction and preliminary fractionation are described in the literature dealing with plant chemistry. They are generally designed for a specific purpose such as pure phytochemical characterisation, biological screening, bioassay-guided fractionation, and selective extraction of one or more compounds. In demonstrating biological activities of medicinal plants, the choice of appropriate extraction and fractionation procedures is of paramount importance. We think that...

Introduction

Cinchona bark is one of the most important naturally occurring drugs in the medical pharmacopoeia. Although the circumstances surrounding cinchona's discovery in Peru in the early part of the 17th century are clouded by unreliable sources, apocryphal ornament, and botanical confusion, there is little doubt that cinchona bark was the first specific treatment for malaria, or indeed for any other disease, in Western medicine. Given the wide geographic distribution of malaria, and the high rates of...

References

Akimoto, M., Kimura, M., Sawano, A., Iwasaki, H., Nakajima, Y., Matano, S., and Kasai, M. (1986). Prevention of cancer chemotherapeutic agent-induced toxicity in postoperative breast cancer patients with gly-cyrrhizin (SNMC). Gan No Rinsho, 32, 869-872. Barringer, D.F., Jr., Berkelhammer, G., Carter, S.D., Goldman, L., and Lanzilotti, A.E. (1973a). Stereochemistry of febrifugine. I. Equilibrium between cis- and trans-(3-substituted 2-piperidyl)-2-propanones. J. Org. Chem., 38, 1933-1937....

Role Of Traditional Medicine In Primary Health Care For Malaria

Malaria in humans is caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, which is transmitted through bites by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Four subspecies, namely, P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale, are known to cause malaria in humans. The most severe malaria fevers and about 90 of malaria deaths are caused by P. falciparum, which is the predominant parasite species in Africa. It is also in Africa that the most efficient mosquito vector for malaria transmission,...

Polypharmacy As A Means To Offset Nausea Induced By D Febrifuga

In the case of Changshan, it is not resistance that has been the problem leading to disuse of the drug, as we have seen, but nausea and vomiting associated with the known emetic effects of febrifugine. Not surprisingly, however, at least three of the other ingredients in the classical formulation studied in China in the mid-20th century would seem to be candidates for offsetting the emetic properties of Changshan. They are Zingiber officinale (ginger), Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice), and Areca...

The Ethics And Politics Of Clinical Experiments With Changshan

Chinese doctors had clear reasons to adopt the clinical-experiment-first strategy. First, if clinical experimentation were generally accepted as the first step for studying Chinese drugs, to a certain degree the autonomy of Chinese medicine would be maintained. Since clinical experimentation came first, it would have to be conducted more or less in the traditional fashion. On the other hand, if the research procedure on Chinese drugs followed the received program, then immediately after the...

Info

Stated whether the smoke was from special plants or from cow dung, which is also a common source of smoke for repelling mosquitoes. Significantly, several studies asking open questions about methods of preventing malaria failed to elicit any mention of herbs. This implies that herbs are not used as widely for prevention as they are for treatment of malaria. However, some communities include prophylactic herbs in their diet without the conscious intention of preventing malaria (Etkin and Ross,...

Table 113

Species Used for Fever or Malaria in Two Continents (IVmal 7) a See Figure 11.1. b See Figure 11.2. c See Chapter 6. d See Chapter 2. Spondias mombin L. Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. Bixa orellana L. Carica papaya L.a Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Ageratum conyzoides L. Elephantopus scaber L. Tagetes erecta L. Tinthonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A Gray Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swingle Figure 11.1 Pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf and root preparations are widely...

Essential Oils

Essential oils are derived by steam distillation from plants in several families. The Lamiaceae family includes basil (Ocimum basilicum), mint (Mentha spp.), hyptis (Hyptis suaveolens), lavender (Lavandula spp.), sage (Salvia spp.), and thyme (Thymus spp.). The Myrtaceae family includes eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) and tea tree (Melaleuca spp.), and the Poaceae includes citronella, lemongrass, and palmarosa (Cymbopogon spp.). Table 22.1 shows the average protection times against Aedes...

Classical Ayurvedic Formulations for the Treatment of Visama Jvara Malaria Type Fever Containing Neem

Ayurvedic Text Date Nimba (Azadirachta Stem bark Decoction Caraka samhita, 1500 b.c.-400 a.d. indica), Patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina), Triphala (a group of three plants Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Emblica officinalis), Mrdvika (Vitis vinifera), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Vatsaka (Holorrhena pubescens) Amrta Nimba Guduci (Tinospora Stem bark Decoction Kvatha coridfolia), Nimba, Pancatiktaka Vrsa (Adhatoda Stem bark Ghee preparation Sarngadhara 1300 a.d. (Tinospora cordifolia),...

Medicinal Plants Conclusion

Clinical observations on traditional remedies are feasible and useful, and this chapter has presented clinical evidence that some herbal remedies are safe and effective against malaria. However, better evidence from randomised clinical trials is necessary before the use of an herbal remedy can be recommended on a large scale. As randomised controlled trials are expensive and time-consuming, it is important to prioritise remedies for clinical investigation according to existing data from...

Malarial Fevers In Ayurveda

The term malaria is not known in Ayurveda, and the etiological explanation in terms of transmission, the presence of plasmodia, and their progress through asexual to sexual stages is not described in Ayurveda. Nevertheless, there is evidence to show that the malaria type of fever was carefully studied and understood. The view taken in this chapter is that an understanding of these approaches, concepts, and principles holds significant potential for the contribution to malaria control and more...

Background And History

Widespread resurgence of malaria in India during the 1970s prompted the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) to develop an Ayurvedic remedy for malaria. CCRAS is an autonomous institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In Ayurvedic literature, malaria fever is known as Vishamajwara (intermittent fever with rigor). The Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia and experience in the treatment of various fevers, including malaria, was the basis for the...

Efficacy Of Herbal Preparations In Childhood Febrile Illnesses

It may be difficult for researchers to adhere to these criteria as it may be difficult to find members of the community to act as interviewers and it may also be difficult to find interviewers who are literate but do not have a bias towards Western medicine. 10.3.2.4 Criterion 5 Prospective Follow-Up Most studies relied on recall of past behaviour or hypothetical actions in particular scenarios. Only three had a prospective design (Espino and Manderson, 2000 Jayawardene, 1993 Ruebush et al.,...

Clinical Studies

Njoku et al. (2001) report a series of 25 patients with falciparum malaria treated with an aqueous extract of A. indica. Unfortunately, the only parameter reported is the patients' cholesterol levels, which were reduced compared to a non-malaria-infected control group, but not significantly different from those of malaria patients treated with chloroquine. British and Indian doctors working in India in the early 20th century produced a report of their observations on the use of a tincture of A....

Changshan In Contemporary China

By way of background to understanding how Changshan came to be developed as an antimalarial in 20th-century China, it is instructive to consider the rise of modern medical research into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the relationship between the modern and traditional sectors in terms of influence in the direction of this research. From the early 20th century, the destiny of TCM has been strongly associated with the history of the Chinese state. In 1928, when the Kuomintang (Nationalist...

Acute Toxicity In Vivo

Sudanese farmers believe that neem is toxic to their livestock when they eat the leaves raw (Ali and Salih, 1982) and causes them to have a liver so bitter that it is inedible. Ali (1987) demonstrated this by feeding goats and guinea pigs with the fresh leaves of A. indica for 5 days, at a dose of 2000 mg kg. All the goats and half of the guinea pigs died by the fifth day. At postmortem examination, the liver and kidneys were found to be fatty and hemorrhagic, the lungs were congested in the...

Uses Of Seethamsurasa Ayurvedic Medicine

A Percent of patients clear of parasites by specified day. b Cured afebrile, symptoms completely resolved improved partial resolution of symptoms FC fever clearance. c See Chapter 2 for full description of Totaquina preparations and Chapter 5 for full description of Ayush-64. Sudarsana churna principally Swertia chirata (33 ). Seethamsurasa Ayurvedic preparation containing Azadirachta indica bark and arsenic. dLFTs liver function tests. Ayurvedic preparation containing 54 ingredients,

Review Of Clinical Trials 531 Trials by the CCRAS

These trials were aimed to compare the efficacy of Ayush-64 vs. chloroquine in the treatment of malaria. The first trial in 1979 recruited 58 volunteers for this study. Thirty cases received supervised treatment with Ayush-64 (1500 mg on the first day and 750 mg daily for 3 days) and 28 cases with chloroquine (600 mg) and primaquine (30 mg on day 1 and 15 mg on day 2). Both treatments produced an equal response (p > 0.05). The next trial consisted of vivax malaria cases (118 outpatients and...

Discovering Changshan And Overcoming Barriers To Entry

The initial stage of discovering Changshan looked clear and simple. As Chen Guofu recalled, the starting point was when one of the school guards found in the local newspaper a prescription for treating malaria and distributed copies of this prescription to the staff members of the Central Political School. In a screenplay that he subsequently wrote to ensure public recognition of his own contribution, Chen Guofu described what followed At that time, the director of the school clinic, Doctor...

Ukeleptes Plant 221

The Repellency of Essential Oils (100 Concentration) to Aedes Mosquitoes from USDA (1943-1967) Terpenene Citronellal Limonene Myrcene a Pinene 0 < 1 1 1 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 2-3 2-3 FIGURE 22.1 Burmese woman wearing thanaka. (Copyright 1996-2000, Naomi Suzuki.) FIGURE 22.1 Burmese woman wearing thanaka. (Copyright 1996-2000, Naomi Suzuki.) (Lindsay et al., 1998). In a follow-up clinical trial, pregnant women using a mixture of thanaka and deet experienced a 28 greater reduction in incidence of...

References Of Taylor 1989 About Medicinal Plant

Artemether-Quinine Meta-Analysis Study Group. (2001). A meta-analysis using individual patient data of trials comparing artemether with quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, 637-650. Ashton, M., Duy Sy, N., Van Huong, N., et al. (1998). Artemisinin kinetics and dynamics during oral and rectal treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 63, 482-493. Bensky, D. and Gamble, A. (1993). Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica....

Scientific Nane Of Seetamsurasa

Researches on the treatment of benign tertian fever. Lancet, 198, 1257-1261. Ajaiyeoba, E.O., Falade, C.O., Fawole, O.L., et al. (2000). A New Approach to the Development of Antimalarial Drugs from Nigerian Ethnomedicine. Paper presented at the WHO TDR meeting on Natural Products for the Treatment of Tropical Diseases, Geneva, August 26-28. Bhatia, D. (1997). Role of Ayush-64 in malaria epidemic. J. Res. Ayurveda Siddha, XVIII, 71-76. Bitahwa, N., Tumwesigye, O., Kabariime,...

Toxicological Studies

Ansa-Asamoah and Frempong-Asante (1983) studied the acute and subacute toxicity of crypto-lepine in male albino mice. Two groups of mice were given daily subcutaneous injections of either 30 or 60 mg kg of the alkaloid. When the animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks, no histological changes were detected in the liver and kidneys. After 6 weeks, extensive necrosis of liver cells was detected in both groups. While no obvious histological changes were observed in the kidneys of mice given the...

The Use Of Smoke As A Mosquito Repellent

Merlin Willcox

Smoke is the most widely used means of repelling mosquitoes utilised in the rural Tropics. Waste plant materials are frequently burned in Sri Lanka as a mosquito repellent, even though indoor residual spraying has been carried out by the government for many years (Silva, 1991). In rural Guinea-Bissau, 86 of residents used an unimpregnated bed net in conjunction with mosquito coils or plant-based smoke (Palsson and Jaenson, 1999a). In the Solomon Islands, a recent survey revealed that fire with...

Ngoka 11 Herbal Medicine

Comparison between Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine 1. Based on belief and empirical evidence for cure safety, efficacy, and quality of drugs often not well known 2. Highly accessible to individuals and communities 3. Highly acceptable and understood by the communities and individuals in both rural and urban places 4. Highly affordable even if it is often more costly than modern medicine 5. Reputation and credibility spread by way of mouth and individual community experience 6. Holistic...

Series Preface

Global warming and global travel are among the factors resulting in the spread of such infectious diseases as malaria, tuberculosis, heptatitis B, and HIV. All these are not well controlled by the present drug regimes. Antibiotics, too, are failing because of bacterial resistance. Formerly less well known tropical diseases are reaching new shores. A whole range of illnesses, for example cancer, occur worldwide. Advances in molecular biology, including methods of in vitro testing for a required...

Identifying Changshan

Before pharmacognostic research could be conducted on Changshan, Guan Guangdi had to solve a tricky problem What was the thing called Changshan For Guan Guangdi, the problem of identifying Changshan consisted of two subproblems. First of all, what was the historical identity of the herbal drug Changshan in the tradition of Chinese Materia Medica Second, in terms of modern pharmacognosy, which plant was the source of this herbal drug Changshan described in the Chinese Materia Medica By comparing...