Medicinal Plants Conclusion

Clinical observations on traditional remedies are feasible and useful, and this chapter has presented clinical evidence that some herbal remedies are safe and effective against malaria. However, better evidence from randomised clinical trials is necessary before the use of an herbal remedy can be recommended on a large scale. As randomised controlled trials are expensive and time-consuming, it is important to prioritise remedies for clinical investigation according to existing data from...

References

Al Dakhil, M.A. and Morsy, T.A. (1999). The larvicidal activity of peel oils of three Citrus fruits against Culex pipiens. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 29, 347-352. Ali, A., Chowdhury, M.A., Hossain, M.I., Mahmud-UI-Ameen, Habiba, D.B., and Islam, A.F. (1999). Laboratory evaluation of selected larvicides and insect growth regulators against field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus larvae from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc, 15, 43-47. Bandara, K.A., Kumar, V., Jacobsson, U.,...

Malarial Fevers In Ayurveda

The term malaria is not known in Ayurveda, and the etiological explanation in terms of transmission, the presence of plasmodia, and their progress through asexual to sexual stages is not described in Ayurveda. Nevertheless, there is evidence to show that the malaria type of fever was carefully studied and understood. The view taken in this chapter is that an understanding of these approaches, concepts, and principles holds significant potential for the contribution to malaria control and more...

Background And History

Widespread resurgence of malaria in India during the 1970s prompted the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) to develop an Ayurvedic remedy for malaria. CCRAS is an autonomous institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In Ayurvedic literature, malaria fever is known as Vishamajwara (intermittent fever with rigor). The Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia and experience in the treatment of various fevers, including malaria, was the basis for the...

Info

Than the bark for the treatment of severe acute cases requiring large doses because the volume to be administered is smaller and less likely to upset the stomach however, he goes on to recommend the use of bark for more chronic cases with great debility and weak heart. After quinine was first isolated in 1820, it became increasingly more popular than the crude bark. However, it was observed on several occasions that the bark could be even more effective than the isolated quinine. Northnagel's...

Efficacy Of Herbal Preparations In Childhood Febrile Illnesses

It may be difficult for researchers to adhere to these criteria as it may be difficult to find members of the community to act as interviewers and it may also be difficult to find interviewers who are literate but do not have a bias towards Western medicine. 10.3.2.4 Criterion 5 Prospective Follow-Up Most studies relied on recall of past behaviour or hypothetical actions in particular scenarios. Only three had a prospective design (Espino and Manderson, 2000 Jayawardene, 1993 Ruebush et al.,...

Clinical Studies

Njoku et al. (2001) report a series of 25 patients with falciparum malaria treated with an aqueous extract of A. indica. Unfortunately, the only parameter reported is the patients' cholesterol levels, which were reduced compared to a non-malaria-infected control group, but not significantly different from those of malaria patients treated with chloroquine. British and Indian doctors working in India in the early 20th century produced a report of their observations on the use of a tincture of A....

Changshan In Contemporary China

By way of background to understanding how Changshan came to be developed as an antimalarial in 20th-century China, it is instructive to consider the rise of modern medical research into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the relationship between the modern and traditional sectors in terms of influence in the direction of this research. From the early 20th century, the destiny of TCM has been strongly associated with the history of the Chinese state. In 1928, when the Kuomintang (Nationalist...

Acute Toxicity In Vivo

Sudanese farmers believe that neem is toxic to their livestock when they eat the leaves raw (Ali and Salih, 1982) and causes them to have a liver so bitter that it is inedible. Ali (1987) demonstrated this by feeding goats and guinea pigs with the fresh leaves of A. indica for 5 days, at a dose of 2000 mg kg. All the goats and half of the guinea pigs died by the fifth day. At postmortem examination, the liver and kidneys were found to be fatty and hemorrhagic, the lungs were congested in the...

Na

A Percent of patients clear of parasites by specified day. b Cured afebrile, symptoms completely resolved improved partial resolution of symptoms FC fever clearance. c See Chapter 2 for full description of Totaquina preparations and Chapter 5 for full description of Ayush-64. Sudarsana churna principally Swertia chirata (33 ). Seethamsurasa Ayurvedic preparation containing Azadirachta indica bark and arsenic. dLFTs liver function tests. Ayurvedic preparation containing 54 ingredients,

Review Of Clinical Trials 531 Trials by the CCRAS

These trials were aimed to compare the efficacy of Ayush-64 vs. chloroquine in the treatment of malaria. The first trial in 1979 recruited 58 volunteers for this study. Thirty cases received supervised treatment with Ayush-64 (1500 mg on the first day and 750 mg daily for 3 days) and 28 cases with chloroquine (600 mg) and primaquine (30 mg on day 1 and 15 mg on day 2). Both treatments produced an equal response (p > 0.05). The next trial consisted of vivax malaria cases (118 outpatients and...

Discovering Changshan And Overcoming Barriers To Entry

The initial stage of discovering Changshan looked clear and simple. As Chen Guofu recalled, the starting point was when one of the school guards found in the local newspaper a prescription for treating malaria and distributed copies of this prescription to the staff members of the Central Political School. In a screenplay that he subsequently wrote to ensure public recognition of his own contribution, Chen Guofu described what followed At that time, the director of the school clinic, Doctor...

Ukeleptes Plant 221

The Repellency of Essential Oils (100 Concentration) to Aedes Mosquitoes from USDA (1943-1967) Terpenene Citronellal Limonene Myrcene a Pinene 0 < 1 1 1 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 2-3 2-3 FIGURE 22.1 Burmese woman wearing thanaka. (Copyright 1996-2000, Naomi Suzuki.) FIGURE 22.1 Burmese woman wearing thanaka. (Copyright 1996-2000, Naomi Suzuki.) (Lindsay et al., 1998). In a follow-up clinical trial, pregnant women using a mixture of thanaka and deet experienced a 28 greater reduction in incidence of...

References Of Taylor 1989 About Medicinal Plant

Artemether-Quinine Meta-Analysis Study Group. (2001). A meta-analysis using individual patient data of trials comparing artemether with quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95, 637-650. Ashton, M., Duy Sy, N., Van Huong, N., et al. (1998). Artemisinin kinetics and dynamics during oral and rectal treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 63, 482-493. Bensky, D. and Gamble, A. (1993). Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica....

Guoyao Yanjiushi

In 1885, the Customs lists of China refer to the diversity of ingredients known as Changshan Several plants supply drugs of this name, which are used as febrifuges, as Dichroa febr fuga Lour., Hydrangea sp., and an unknown herbaceous plant (Stuart, 1976, p. 293). Early records also note the emetic effects of D. febrifuga and provide a method of correcting this the drug is steeped in a decoction of liquorice root to correct its nauseant properties (Stuart, 1976, p. 293). At different times in...

Toxicological Studies

Ansa-Asamoah and Frempong-Asante (1983) studied the acute and subacute toxicity of crypto-lepine in male albino mice. Two groups of mice were given daily subcutaneous injections of either 30 or 60 mg kg of the alkaloid. When the animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks, no histological changes were detected in the liver and kidneys. After 6 weeks, extensive necrosis of liver cells was detected in both groups. While no obvious histological changes were observed in the kidneys of mice given the...

The Use Of Smoke As A Mosquito Repellent

Smoke is the most widely used means of repelling mosquitoes utilised in the rural Tropics. Waste plant materials are frequently burned in Sri Lanka as a mosquito repellent, even though indoor residual spraying has been carried out by the government for many years (Silva, 1991). In rural Guinea-Bissau, 86 of residents used an unimpregnated bed net in conjunction with mosquito coils or plant-based smoke (Palsson and Jaenson, 1999a). In the Solomon Islands, a recent survey revealed that fire with...

Ngoka 11 Herbal Medicine

Comparison between Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine 1. Based on belief and empirical evidence for cure safety, efficacy, and quality of drugs often not well known 2. Highly accessible to individuals and communities 3. Highly acceptable and understood by the communities and individuals in both rural and urban places 4. Highly affordable even if it is often more costly than modern medicine 5. Reputation and credibility spread by way of mouth and individual community experience 6. Holistic...

Background

1.1.1 Historical Development of Traditional Medicine for Malaria Since prehistoric times man has gradually, through trial and error, recognised and used plants for the treatment of malaria and other ailments. Healers, elders, parents, or priests passed on orally the knowledge of efficacious traditional medicaments to some members of their family, community, and the next generation. Early writings of over 6000 years ago in Egypt and China and those of the Vedic civilisation dated 1600 b.c. in...

Series Preface

Global warming and global travel are among the factors resulting in the spread of such infectious diseases as malaria, tuberculosis, heptatitis B, and HIV. All these are not well controlled by the present drug regimes. Antibiotics, too, are failing because of bacterial resistance. Formerly less well known tropical diseases are reaching new shores. A whole range of illnesses, for example cancer, occur worldwide. Advances in molecular biology, including methods of in vitro testing for a required...