The Best Describes The Presence Of Histoplasma Capsulatum

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323. The object designated by the arrow in the photomicrograph below is

a. An encapsulated yeast b. A thick-walled spore c. A spherule d. A hyphal strand e. A macroconidium a. An encapsulated yeast b. A thick-walled spore c. A spherule d. A hyphal strand e. A macroconidium

324. A 6-year-old girl presents to the clinic with scaly patches on the scalp. Primary smears and culture of the skin and hair were negative. A few weeks later, she returned and was found to have inflammatory lesions. The hair fluoresced under Wood's light and primary smears of skin and hair contained septate hyphae. On speaking with the parents, it was discovered that there were several pets in the household. Which of the following is the most likely agent?

a. Microsporum audouinii b. Microsporum canis c. Trichophyton tonsurans d. Trichophyton rubrum e. Epidermophyton floccosum

325. A patient with AIDS has a persistent cough and has shown progressive behavioral changes in the past few weeks after eating an undercooked hamburger. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample is collected and an encapsulated, yeast-like organism is observed. Based only on these observations, what is the most likely organism?

a. Toxoplasma b. Cryptosporidium c. Candida d. Cryptococcus e. Pneumocystis

326. A clinical diagnosis of meningitis is confirmed with a latex agglutination test on CSF for the capsular polysaccharide of the organism. The most likely causative agent is a. Candida albicans b. Cryptococcus c. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis d. Histoplasma capsulatum e. Aspergillus fumigatus

327. A section of tissue from the foot of a person assumed to have eumy-cotic mycetoma shows a white, lobulated granule composed of fungal hyphae. In the United States, the most common etiologic agent of this condition is a species of a. Acremonium b. Nocardia c. Actinomyces d. Pseudallescheria (Petriellidium)

e. Madurella

328. The formation of granulomas is seen in major systemic fungal infections. Which of the following groups of fungi is most likely to cause granulomas?

a. Aspergillus, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus b. Mucor, Candida, Malassezia c. Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Microsporum d. Coccidioides, Blastomyces, Histoplasma e. Epidermophyton, Blastomyces, Trichophyton

329. Infection with Sporothrix schenckii (formerly Sporotrichum schenckii) is an occupational hazard for gardeners. The portal of entry for this organism is the a. Lymphatic system b. Respiratory tract c. Skin d. Mouth e. Mucous membranes

330. There are three genera of dermatophytes: Epidermophyton, Microspo-rum, and Trichophyton. Infections caused by these organisms, as shown in the figure below (dermatophytoses), are

(Courtesy of MG Rinaldi, San Antonio,TX.)

a. Marked by alveolar irritation b. Characterized by aflatoxin-induced hallucinations c. Confined to keratinized tissues d. Rarely associated with chronic lesions e. Easily treatable with penicillin

331. C. albicans is recognized in microscopic examination of infected tissues by the presence of a. Spherules containing endospores b. Metachromatic granules c. Yeasts and pseudohyphae d. Asci containing 2-8 ascospores e. Abundance of septate rhizoids

332. The mechanism of mucosal invasion by C. albicans is at least partially understood. Which one of the following modifications in the structure or function of this yeast would be most likely to affect its invasive ability?

a. Loss of ability to produce ethanol from glucose b. Loss of ability to produce germ tubes or hyphae c. Reduced ability to grow at 37°C

d. Loss of ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule e. Replacement of mannans in the cell wall with glucan

333. You have been designated as coordinator of construction of a bone marrow transplant unit (BMTU). There will be extensive removal of walls and floors in order to install the laminar flow rooms required for a BMTU. From the standpoint of frequency and lethality, which one of the following fungi should be your biggest concern?

a. Aspergillus b. Candida c. Wangiella d. Cryptococcus e. Blastomyces

334. H. capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus, is found in soil heavily contaminated with bird droppings. Which of the following statements best describes the presence of the organism in tissue biopsies?

a. Yeasts with broad-based bud b. Single-cell yeasts with pseudohyphae c. Arthrospores d. Oval budding yeasts inside macrophages e. Spherules containing endospores

335. Which of the following best describes an infection with Coccidioides immitis?

a. A negative complement-fixing (CF) antibody test b. Inhaled arthrospores form thick-walled spherules filled with endospores c. "Fungus ball" formation d. Thrush e. Clavate macroconidia

336. Inhalation of fungal spores can cause primary lung infections. Of the following organisms, which one is most likely to be associated with this mode of transmission?

a. C. immitis b. S. schenckii c. C. albicans d. T. tonsurans e. Candida tropicalis

337. An immunocompromised patient is suspected of having an infection with A. fumigatus. Which of the clinical conditions is most likely to occur?

a. Wound infection b. Urinary tract infection c. Invasive aspergillosis causing thrombosis and infarction d. Thrush e. Superficial rash

338. Patients who have disseminated coccidioidomycosis may usually demonstrate which one of the following?

a. A negative coccidioidin skin test and a rising complement-fixing (CF) titer b. A negative coccidioidin skin test and a stable CF titer c. A positive skin test and a mildly elevated CF titer d. Absence of CF antibodies e. Lack of immunity to reinfection

339. C. albicans (shown below) is best described by which of the following statements?

(Courtesy of MG Rinaldi, San Antonio,TX.)

a. Widespread in environment; conidia may be inhaled; microscopic appearance in specimen reveals dichotomous branching and septate hyphae b. Round, black sporangia filled with endospores; sporangia unbranched, rising from a runner called a stolon c. Single-tipped sporangiophores; no rhizoids or stolons; nonseptate hyphae, which show branching d. Yeast forms with budding blastoconidia often showing pseudohyphae; positive germ tube test; chlamydospores present

340. Aspergillus is best described by which of the following statements?

a. Widespread in environment; conidia may be inhaled; microscopic appearance in specimen reveals dichotomous branching and septate hyphae b. Round, black sporangia filled with endospores; sporangia unbranched, rising from a runner called a stolon c. Single-tipped sporangiophores; no rhizoids or stolons; nonseptate hyphae, which show branching d. Yeast forms with budding blastoconidia often showing pseudohyphae; positive germ tube test; chlamydospores present

341. Mucor is best described by which of the following statements?

a. Widespread in environment; conidia may be inhaled; microscopic appearance in specimen reveals dichotomous branching and septate hyphae b. Round, black sporangia filled with endospores; sporangia unbranched, rising from a runner called a stolon c. Single-tipped sporangiophores; no rhizoids or stolons; nonseptate hyphae, which show branching d. Yeast forms with budding blastoconidia often showing pseudohyphae; positive germ tube test; chlamydospores present

342. Rhizopus is best described by which of the following statements?

a. Widespread in environment; conidia may be inhaled; microscopic appearance in specimen reveals dichotomous branching and septate hyphae b. Round, black sporangia filled with endospores; sporangia unbranched, rising from a runner called a stolon c. Single-tipped sporangiophores; no rhizoids or stolons; nonseptate hyphae, which show branching d. Yeast forms with budding blastoconidia often showing pseudohyphae; positive germ tube test; chlamydospores present

Questions 343-347

The naming of fungi is very confusing to the nonmycologist. For this reason, the clinician who may treat fungal infections should have a working knowledge of fungal taxonomy. Most of the fungi known to cause infection in humans have been recognized for many years by their asexual stage (anamorph). The sexual stage (teleomorph) of many of these familiar fungi has now been discovered.

343. The appropriate teleomorph for Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a. Ajellomyces capsulata b. Ajellomyces dermatitidis c. Arthroderma van breuseghemii d. Filobasidiella neoformans e. Nannizzia incurvata

344. The appropriate teleomorph for Microsporum gypseum is a. Ajellomyces capsulata b. Ajellomyces dermatitidis c. Arthroderma van breuseghemii d. Filobasidiella neoformans e. Nannizzia incurvata

345. The appropriate teleomorph for Cryptococcus neoformans is a. Ajellomyces capsulata b. Ajellomyces dermatitidis c. Arthroderma van breuseghemii d. Filobasidiella neoformans e. Nannizzia incurvata

346. The appropriate teleomorph for Blastomyces dermatitidis is a. Ajellomyces capsulata b. Ajellomyces dermatitidis c. Arthroderma van breuseghemii d. Filobasidiella neoformans e. Nannizzia incurvata

347. The appropriate teleomorph for Histoplasma capsulatum is a. Ajellomyces capsulata b. Ajellomyces dermatitidis c. Arthroderma van breuseghemii d. Filobasidiella neoformans e. Nannizzia incurvata

348. Barrel-shaped arthroconidia are characteristic of which one of the following fungi?

a. E. floccosum b. C. immitis c. Phialophora verrucosa d. M. canis e. Blastomyces dermatitidis

349. Sporulation from flask-shaped, pigmented projections is commonly observed in which one of the following fungi?

a.

E. floccosum

b.

C. immitis

c.

P. verrucosa

d.

M. canis

e.

B. dermatitidis

350. Clavate macroconidia are characteristic of which one of the following fungi?

a.

E. floccosum

b.

C. immitis

c.

P. verrucosa

d.

M. canis

e.

B. dermatitidis

351. Broad-based budding cells are characteristic of which one of the following fungi?

a. E. floccosum b. C. immitis c. P. verrucosa d. M. canis e. B. dermatitidis

352. Rough-walled macroconidia of 8 to 15 cells are commonly observed in which one of the following fungi?

a. E. floccosum b. C. immitis c. P. verrucosa d. M. canis e. B. dermatitidis

Questions 353-357

Fungal skin diseases may not be named according to the etiologic agent but rather are called tinea or a dermatophytosis.

353. Tinea corporis is caused by which of the following?

a. E. floccosum b. Malassezia furfur c. M. canis d. Exophiala werneckii e. Trichosporon beigelii

354. Tinea cruris is caused by which of the following?

a. E. floccosum b. M. furfur c. M. canis d. E. werneckii e. T. beigelii

355. Tinea pedis is caused by which of the following?

a. E. floccosum b. M. furfur c. M. canis d. E. werneckii e. T. beigelii

356. Tinea capitis is caused by which of the following?

a. E. floccosum b. M. furfur c. M. canis d. E. werneckii e. T. beigelii

357. Tinea versicolor is caused by which of the following?

a. E. floccosum b. M. furfur c. M. canis d. E. werneckii e. T. beigelii

Questions 358-362

Harmless molds commonly seen growing on bread, as well as on a wide variety of other products or foodstuffs, grow equally well in the human host when the host's defenses are compromised.

358. Which one of the following fungi causes subcutaneous zygomycosis? It is most often seen in Africa and Asia; the infections are most often seen on the trunk or limbs and begin as painless, small nodules; and the hyphae are 6 to 25 mm in length with irregular branching:

a. A. fumigatus b. C. albicans c. Conidiobolus coronata d. Rhizopus arrhizus e. Basidiobolus ranarum

359. Which one of the following fungi causes subcutaneous zygomycosis? The infections usually involve the nasal area with swelling of nose and cheeks, and cases are seen in Africa with rare cases in the Caribbean and

South America

a.

A. fumigatus

b.

C. albicans

c.

C. coronata

d.

R. arrhizus

e.

B. ranarum

360. Which one of the following fungi causes allergic bronchopulmonary disease resulting in marked elevation of serum IgE?

a.

A. fumigatus

b.

C. albicans

c.

C. coronata

d.

R. arrhizus

e.

B. ranarum

361. Which one of the following fungi is often isolated from blood, urine, and sputum in invasive disease? It is difficult to determine whether isolation from one body site or body fluid is suggestive of colonization or infec-

tion.

a.

A. fumigatus

b.

C. albicans

c.

C. coronata

d.

R. arrhizus

e.

B. ranarum

362. Which one of the following fungi causes rhinocerebral zygomycosis and is usually associated with acute diabetes?

a.

A. fumigatus

b.

C. albicans

c.

C. coronata

d.

R. arrhizus

e.

B. ranarum

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Responses

  • cora cattaneo
    Which one of the following fungi is often isolated from blood urine and sputum in invasive disease?
    4 years ago

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