Divisions Of Living Organisms

a. Kingdom. This is a large group of organisms with similar features. In the literature, various authors list from two to five kingdoms.

(1) Kingdom PLANTA. This kingdom contains all of the plants. There are no plants parasitic to man.

(2) Kingdom PROTISTA. Members of this kingdom are unicellular (one-celled) organisms. The kingdom is further divided into two subkingdoms.

(a) Subkingdom EUCARYOTA. Eucaryotes are characterized by a nuclear membrane separating the nucleus from the cytoplasm, DNA that is grouped into units called chromosomes, multiplication accomplished by mitosis, and energy produced in structures called mitochondria. Some examples are protozoans and fungi.

(b) Subkingdom PROCARYOTA. The procaryotes are characterized by no nuclear membrane (therefore, there is no organized nucleus); no chromosomes (the DNA is not separated but is a continuous strand); no mitosis (multiplication is accomplished by simple cell division); and no mitochondria (energy is produced at the mesosomes). Some examples are bacteria and bluegreen algae.

(3) Kingdom ANIMALIA. The higher animals, including man, are placed in this kingdom. There are many parasites that infect man in this kingdom.

b. Phylum. A phylum is a major division of a kingdom. There are four phyla (plural of phylum) that contain human parasites: PROTOZOO from the subkingdom EUCARYOTA, and phyla PLATYHELMINTHES, ASCHELMINTHES, and ACANTHOCEPHAHELMINTHES from the kingdom ANIMALIA.

c. Class. A phylum is divided into classes. The name of the class should end in "a." Some examples are Cestoda and Nematoda.

d. Order. Several orders may be contained within a class. This name ends in "ea." Some examples are Filaroidea, Pseudophyllidea.

e. Family. An order may be subdivided into families. The family's ending is "ae." Some examples are Heterophyidae and Endamoebidae.

f. Genus. Each family is made up of various genera (plural of Genus). The genus name may have various endings. The first letter of the genus is capitalized and the name is underlined. The first letter may be used as an abbreviation. Some examples are Macracanthorhynchus and Entamoeba.

g. Species. Each genus is composed of species. The species' name may also have various endings. All letters are small case and the name is underlined. However, the species' name should never be abbreviated. Some examples are E. histolytica and M. hirudinaceus.

h. Identification. Parasitic organisms identified by laboratory procedures are reported by using the genus and species names. Some examples are Giardia lamblia and Enterobius vermicularis.

1-19. PHYLUM PROTOZOO

Class NEMATODA

Class NEMATODA

1-20. PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES

a. Class TREMATODA.

a. Class TREMATODA.

Kinorhyncha
c. Class TURBELLARIA. Free-living flat worms, Planaria species, etc.

1-21. PHYLUM ASCHELMINTHES

a. Class NEMATODA.

a. Class NEMATODA.

b. Classes ROTIFERA, GASTROTRICHA, KINORHYNCHA, PRIAPULIDA, and NEMATOMORPHA. Free-living roundworms.

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