Answers

Regeneration and repair of damaged cells and tissues starts almost as soon as the inflammatory process begins b. Wound healing involves two separate processes i. Regeneration of the damaged tissue by cells of the same type ii. Tissue repair with replacement by connective tissue a. Different tissues have different regenerative capacities ii. Examples surface epithelial cells (skin and mucosal lining cells), hematopoietic cells, stem cells, etc. i. Replicate at a low level throughout life ii....

Medical isi

Micro absence of ganglion cells in Auerbach and Meissner plexuses vii. Treatment resection of affected segment . Malabsorption syndromes i. Synonyms glu ten-sensitive enteropathy, nontropical sprue ii. Definition hypersensitivity to gluten (and gliadin), resulting in loss of small bowel villi and malabsorption iii. Genetic predisposition HLA-B8, DR3, and DQ Increased intraepithelial lymphocytes Increased plasma cells in the lamina propria Usually presents in childhood with malabsorption...

Medical 281

Meningomyelocele defective formation of the bony arch with cystic outpouching of meninges, spina cord, and spinal roots iv. Myelocele defective bony arch with complete exposure of spinal cord v. Significant defects lead to paraplegia and urinary incontinence from birth i. Common, but mosdy asymptomatic ii. Downward displacement of cerebellar tonsils ii. Faulty craniospinal junction, resulting in small posterior fossa, with Downward displacement of cerebellar vermis and medulla Compression...

Gallbladder and Biliary Tract Pathology

Cholesterol stones a. Composition mostly cholesterol monohydrate precipitation of cholesterol from supersaturated bile. Formation of cholesterol stones involves the iv. Oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) v. Incidence increases with age vi. Genetics (Native American Pima and Navajo Indians) 2. Pigmented bilirubinate stones a. Composition calcium salts and unconjugated bilirubin iv. Parasites (Ascaris or Clonorchis Opisthorchis sinensis) 3....

Questions Answers On Bulky Epididymal

Epispadias urethral opening on the dorsal surface of the penis b. Hypospadias urethral opening on the ventral surface of the penis c. Both malformations may be associated with undescended testes d. Both malformations have an increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and infertility a. Definition inflammation of the glans penis b. Causes poor hygiene and lack of circumcision 3. Peyronie disease Penile fibromatosis resulting in curvature of the penis a. Warty, cauliflower-like growth...

Medical 135

Pulmonary hemorrhage may be severe and life threatening iii. Rapidly progressive renal failure is common iv. Early aggressive treatment may prevent end-stage renal failure 3. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) a. Synonym crescentic glomerulonephritis b. Clinical feature rapid progression to severe renal failure in weeks or months c. Occurs in several clinical settings i. Following Goodpasture syndrome ii. Following other forms of glomerulonephritis (post-streptococcal, SLE,...

Medical 277

Third most frequent cause of death in industrialized countries b. Leading cause of serious disability in the United States c. Risk factors similar to coronary artery disease i. Fall in blood flow to the brain (shock, cardiac arrest, and hypotensive episodes) ii. Damage to regions of selective vulnerability Purkinje neurons, hippocampus CA1, and pyramidal neurons of cortex iii. Infarcts in watershed areas Diffuse ischemic necrosis of neocortex May lead to brain death b. Transient ischemic...

Review Questions

A 32-year-old woman comes to the physician because of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse. She has also had a foul-smelling vaginal discharge for the past few months. She has not been to the doctor in ages and has never had a pelvic examination or a Pap smear. Pelvic examination shows a friable, beefy red cervix. A biopsy is taken and sent to pathology for histologic examination. The results come back as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma. Which of the following viruses is most likely...

Chapter Summary

Multinodular goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland with multiple colloid nodules that is frequently asymptomatic and euthyroid. General features of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, nervousness, diaphoresis, heat intolerance, weakness, tremors, diarrhea, and weight loss. Free T4 is elevated and TSH is decreased in primary hyperthyroidism and increased in secondary and tertiary hyperthyroidism. Graves disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by production of IgG autoantibodies to the TSH...

Chapter Summary continued

Aortic dissecting aneurysm occur when blood from the vessel lumen enters an intimal tear and dissects through the layers of the media, which have often previously been damaged by cystic medial necrosis. Berry aneurysms are congenital aneurysms of the vessels near the Circle of Willis. Rupture of these aneurysms may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage. Deep vein thrombosis usually involves the deep leg veins and may be asymptomatic. The major complication is pulmonary embolus. Varicose veins are...

Preface

These seven volumes of Lecture Notes represent a yearlong effort on the part of the Kaplan Medical faculty to update our curriculum to reflect the most-likely-to-be-tested material on the current USMLE Step 1 exam. Please note that these are Lecture Notes, not review books. The Notes were designed to be accompanied by faculty lectures live, on video, or on the web. Reading these Notes without accessing the accompanying lectures is not an effective way to review for the USMLE. To maximize the...