Chapter Summary continued

Most pulmonary emboli arise from deep vein thrombosis in the leg and may be asymptomatic, cause pulmonary infarction, or cause sudden death.

Pulmonary hypertension is increased pulmonary artery pressure, usually due to increased vascular resistance or blood flow. Pulmonary hypertension can be idiopathic or related to underlying COPD, interstitial disease, pulmonary emboli, mitral stenosis, left heart failure, and congenital heart disease with left to right shunt.

Bronchogenic carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer deaths among both men and women. Major risk factors are cigarette smoking, occupational exposures, and air pollution. Histologic types include adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma. Other tumors of importance include bronchial carcinoids, metastatic carcinoma to the lung, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. Pneumothorax is air in the pleural cavity.

Mesotheliomas are rare, highly malignant neoplasms that can involve the pleura and are closely related to prior asbestos exposure.

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