Chapter Summary

Type I (red) skeletal muscle is used in postural weight bearing and produces a slow twitch as a result of aerobic metabolism of fatty acids; type 2 (white) skeletal muscle is used for purposeful movement and produces a fast twitch as a result of anaerobic glycolysis of glycogen.

Inflammatory myopathies include polymyositis (adults, bilateral proximal muscle weakness, cytotoxic T8 lymphocytes, and skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration), dermatomyositis (children or adults with bilateral proximal muscle weakness; periorbital edema with skin rash of eyelids; muscle biopsy with lymphocytes and perifascicular fiber atrophy; and increased risk of lung, stomach, and ovarian cancers), and inclusion body myositis (older adults with asymmetrical distal muscle weakness and odd microscopy with cytoplasmic vacuoles, basophilic granules, amyloid, and, by EM, filamentous inclusions).

Myasthenic syndromes include myasthenia gravis (autoantibody attack on muscle acetylcholine receptor sometimes related to thymic disease, produces muscle weakness that worsens with use, may cause ptosis and diplopia, and may cause death secondary to respiratory muscle failure) and Eaton-Lambert syndrome (paraneoplastic syndrome of small cell carcinoma of lung with autoantibodies against calcium channels producing proximal muscle weakness that improves with muscle use).

Muscular dystrophies include Duchenne muscular dystrophy (X-linked abnormality of the muscle structural protein dystrophin causes progressive muscular weakness related to muscle necrosis and degeneration beginning by age 5, involving initially shoulder and pelvic girdles; death may be due to heart failure, arrhythmias, respiratory insufficiency, or pulmonary infections) and Becker muscular dystrophy (less common, milder variant of Duchenne with relatively normal life span).

Guillain-Barr^ syndrome is an inflammatory neuropathy that typically follows a viral illness and may lead to paralysis and sometimes death (respirator/ paralysis) as a result of inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

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