Chapter Summary

Jaundice produces yellow skin and sclera and occurs with bilirubin levels >2-3 mg/dl.

Increased red blood cell turnover, due to either hemolytic anemia or ineffective erythropoiesis, causes an unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and may predispose for pigmented bilirubinate gallstones.

Physiologic jaundice of the newborn is a transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to the immaturity of the liver.

Gilbert syndrome and Crigler-Najjar syndrome are inherited causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase deficiency or absence. Gilbert disease is completely benign. Type I Crigler-Najjar syndrome is fatal in infancy secondary to kernicterus and type II Crigler-Najjar syndrome causes jaundice,

Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a benign autosomal recessive disorder that causes conjugated hyperbilirubinemia secondary to decreased bilirubin excretion due to a defect in the canalicular transport protein. A distinctive feature of Dubin-Johnson syndrome is black pigmentation of the liver. Rotor syndrome is similar to Dubin-Johnson syndrome but does not have the liver pigmentation.


Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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