Chapter Summary

Jaundice produces yellow skin and sclera and occurs with bilirubin levels >2-3 mg/dl.

Increased red blood cell turnover, due to either hemolytic anemia or ineffective erythropoiesis, causes an unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and may predispose for pigmented bilirubinate gallstones.

Physiologic jaundice of the newborn is a transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to the immaturity of the liver.

Gilbert syndrome and Crigler-Najjar syndrome are inherited causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase deficiency or absence. Gilbert disease is completely benign. Type I Crigler-Najjar syndrome is fatal in infancy secondary to kernicterus and type II Crigler-Najjar syndrome causes jaundice,

Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a benign autosomal recessive disorder that causes conjugated hyperbilirubinemia secondary to decreased bilirubin excretion due to a defect in the canalicular transport protein. A distinctive feature of Dubin-Johnson syndrome is black pigmentation of the liver. Rotor syndrome is similar to Dubin-Johnson syndrome but does not have the liver pigmentation.

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Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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