Circulatory Pathology

A. Edema Note

1. Definition: presence of excess fluid in the intercellular space

generalized, depending on the a. Congestive heart failure (generalized edema) • etiology and severity.

b. Portal hypertension c. Renal retention of salt and water d. Venous thrombosis (local edema)

3. Hypoalbuminemia and decreased colloid osmotic pressure a. Liver disease b. Nephrotic syndrome c. Protein deficiency (e.g., Kwashiorkor)

4. Lymphatic obstruction (lymphedema)

a. Tumor b. Surgical removal of lymph node drainage c. Parasitic infestation (filariasis —» elephantiasis)

5. Increased endothelial permeability a. Inflammation b. Type I hypersensitivity reactions c. Drugs (e.g., bleomycin, heroin, etc.)

6. Anasarca: severe generalized edema

7. Effusion: fluid within the body cavities

8. Transudate versus exudate a. Transudate i. Edema fluid with low protein content ij. Specific gravity <1.020

i. Edema fluid with high protein content and cells ii. Specific gravity > 1.020

iii. Types of exudates

• Eosinophilic

■ Hemorrhagic njirinii .

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