3. Methyl alcohol (methanol, wood alcohol)

a. Metabolized to formaldehyde (by alcohol dehydrogenase) and fonnic acid b. Present in solvents, paint remover, and other household chemicals c. Retina —» necrosis of retinal ganglion cells results in blindness d. CNS —> inebriation, coma, and death e. Treatment: ethyl alcohol E. Drugs of Abuse

1. Heroin a. Overdoses —> cardiopulmonary arrest and sudden death b. Infections i. Skin abscesses and cellulitis ii. Bacterial endocarditis (S. aureus)

iii. Increased risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis viruses c. Pulmonary pathology i. Foreign body granuloma in the lungs ii. Pulmonary abscesses iii. Pulmonary edema d. Focal glomerulosclerosis e. Amyloidosis f. Treatment: for reversal use naloxone (an opiate antagonist)

2. Cocaine a. Euphoria b. Seizures c. Cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death d. Hypertension and stroke e. Chronic use i. Perforation of the nasal septum ii. Dilated cardiomyopathy

Clinical Correlate

The telltale sign of IVDA are "track marks" in the antecubital fossa, which are produced from the healing of skin abscesses.

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