Respiratory System Pathology

A. Atelectasis

1. Definition: area of collapsed or nonexpanded lung

2. Major types a. Obstruction/resorption atelectasis i. Collapse of lung due to resorption of air distal to an obstruction ii. Examples: aspiration of a foreign body, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or postoperative b. Compression atelectasis due to fluid, air, blood, or tumor in the pleural space c. Contraction (scar) atelectasis due to fibrosis and scarring of the lung d. Patchy atelectasis i. Due to a lack of surfactant ii. Examples: hyaline membrane disease of newborn or acute (adult) respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

3. Predisposed to infection

4. Reversible disorder

B. Pulmonary Infections 1. Bacterial pneumonia a. Definition: acute inflammation and consolidation (solidification) of the lung due to a bacterial agent b. Clinical signs and symptoms i. Fever and chills ii. Productive cough with yellow-green (pus) or rusty (bloody) sputum iii. Tachypnea iv. Pleuritic chest pain v. Decreased breath sounds, rales, and dullness to percussion c. Lab: elevated WBC count with a left shift d. Chest x-ray i. Lobar: lobar or segmental consolidation (opacification)

ii. Bronchopneumonia: patchy opacification iii. Pleural effusion e. Clinical keys: identification of the organism and early treatment with antibiotics f. Lobar pneumonia i. Consolidation of entire lobe ii. Organism: Streptococcus pneumoniae (95%) or Klebsiella

Bridge to Anatomy

Pores of Kohn are collateral connections between air spaces through which infections can spread.


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