Review Questions

1. A 32-year-old woman comes to the physician because of "breast lumps" that she noticed while performing her self-breast examination in the shower 1 week ago. She thinks that she may have felt them during her breast examination in the previous month, but they were slighdy smaller then. She says that she performs this examination each month, 3 days before she is due to get her menstrual period. She has mild breast tenderness each month before her period and sometimes has to wear a larger bra during this time because her breasts are "swollen." Physical examination shows 6-8-, 0.3-0.9-cm, tender nodules in the upper outer quadrant of each breast. Excisional biopsy of a few of these nodules is most likely to show which of the following?

Blue-domes cysts, fibrosis, and apocrine metaplasia Clusters of bland cells within pools of mucin Papillary growths within lactiferous ducts and sinuses Proliferation of stroma, ducts, and lobules Small cells forming a single-line pattern

2. A 56-year-old woman comes to the physician for a health maintenance examination. She has no physical complaints, but she is concerned about her risk for breast cancer. She had menarche at age 9, a bilateral hysterectomy with oophorectomy because of leiomyomas at age 39, has been pregnant four times, and has been "slighdy anorexic" for the past 25 years. Her mother's great-grandmother was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 94. Which of the following factors in this patient's history increases her breast cancer risk the most?


Age of menarche


Age of menopause


Family history





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