Examples Of Digestants

Glutamic acid hydrochloride is used in the treatment of patients who are either secreting no stomach acid (achlorhydria) or are secreting little stomach acid (hypochlorhydria). Once prepared, the acid solution is sipped through a glass straw in order to minimize damage to the teeth. b. Dehydrocholic Acid, NF. Dehydrocholic acid is used to increase the volume of bile produced and secreted in the digestive system. It is used to relieve excessive constipation as...

Irregularities Of Insulin Therapy

Theoretically, a person who has been prescribed insulin should have few problems with diabetes mellitus if food intake is controlled and if insulin administration is properly maintained. However, such control is easier said than done. Periods of stress (physical or mental in nature) can interfere with the delicate balance a diabetic has to maintain in order to function properly. If the diabetic ingests too much food (e.g., eats several pieces of candy at a holiday celebration), this delicate...

Actions Of Insulin

That is, it is a chemical catalyst that enhances the processes by which the tissues of the body use glucose. Insulin impacts both the use of glucose as fuel for the tissues and the storage of glucose (with as glycogen or as fat). Therefore, the key word is energy. Specifically, insulin affects metabolism by increasing the use and decreasing the production of glucose, increasing the storage and decreasing the production and oxidation of fatty acids, and increasing the...

The Adrenal Glands

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are embedded in the fat above each kidney. Both adrenal glands have an internal medulla and an external cortex. a. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla. The medullary (inside the gland) portion of each adrenal gland produces a pair of hormones, epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin). These hormones are both involved in the mobilization of energy during the stress reaction (fight or flight response). These hormones are also...

Abnormalities Of Adrenal Functioning

In most individuals, the adrenal glands function as they should. That is, they produce the hormones needed in the body in the required amounts. However, for one reason or another, some persons find their adrenal glands not functioning as they should. Two such conditions are presented below a. Addison's Disease. Addison's disease results when the adrenal glands secrete too little of its hormones into the individual's system. Addison's disease is characterized by fatigue, muscle weakness, weight...

Use Of Insulin Preparations

Most insulin preparations are suspensions. Therefore, the patient must ensure that the insulin is thoroughly mixed before the syringe and needle is used to remove it from the bottle. THE INSULIN BOTTLE MUST NOT BE SHAKEN BEFORE THE DOSE IS EXTRACTED. If the bottle is shaken, air bubbles may be introduced into the product and the measured dose may be inaccurate (i.e., air bubbles are measured instead of insulin). To properly mix the insulin, the patient should roll the bottle slowly between the...

The Pancreas

The pancreas is located behind the stomach in the curve of the duodenum. The pancreas may be considered both an endocrine and an exocrine gland since pancreatic juices are secreted through the common pancreatic duct. Two types of tissue make up the pancreas. The acini secrete digestive juices into the duodenum. The Islets of Langerhans is the endocrine tissue. The Islets of Langerhans contains two types of cells, each type produces a particular hormone. Alpha cells produce glucagon. Beta cells...

Check Your Answers on Next Page

LESSON 10 Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemic Agents. LESSON ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 10-1 through 10-22. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to 10-1. From a group of statements, select the statement that best describes why insulin is not therapeutically effective when it is administered orally. 10-2. From a group of statements, select the statement that describes the role of insulin in the physiological processes of the body. 10-3. Given the names of particular sites in...

Rectum Anal Canal And Anus

However, this six inch tubular structure would actually look a bit wave-like from the front. From the side, one would see that it was curved to conform the sacrum (at the lower end of the spinal column). The final storage of feces is in the rectum. The rectum terminates in the narrow anal canal, which is about 1 1 2 inches long in the adult. At the end of the anal canal is the opening called the anus. Muscles called the anal sphincters aid in the retention of feces until...

The Gonads

Both the male and female sexes have gonads. The female and male cells, or gametes, are produced by the reproductive glands or gonads. In the male, the gonads are the two testes. In the female, the gonads are the two ovaries. In addition to these primary sex glands, there are a number of accessory organs. In the male, these accessory organs are the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the penis. In the female, the accessory organs are the fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus,...

Overview

Many of the drugs you will dispense will directly affect one or more of the endocrine glands or will perform some function intended to be performed by one of the endocrine glands. As you review the endocrine system, be aware of the importance of this system to your daily life. b. The endocrine system is an interconnected system of glands that produces substances known as hormones. These glands are not connected directly, but are nonetheless connected by the circulatory system. The hormones...

Sources Of Insulin

Insulin is primarily obtained from the pancreases of slaughtered beef cattle and pigs. Hence, it is labeled beef or pork depending on the source of the pancreases. Insulin you have in the pharmacy consists of either a mixture of pork or beef insulin or single-source products (i.e., insulin prepared either from beef or pork pancreases). The information specific to the source of the insulin is contained on the product label. The mixture products are usually dispensed. However, when a patient...

BExamples of Plasma Expanders

Normal human serum albumin is a fraction of whole blood. It is a clear, moderately viscous, brownish fluid which contains 25 grams of serum albumin in 100 milliliters of product. Because each gram of albumin holds approximately 18 milliliters of water, it is used as blood volume expander in the treatment of hemorrhage or shock. In this use, the albumin draws fluid into the circulatory system from the surrounding tissues. This product has also been used as a...

The Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is located in the neck just below the larynx (voice box). The thyroid gland secretes the hormone thyroxin. a. Background. Thyroxin is synthesized within the thyroid gland by the combination of several amino acids with four atoms of iodine. Once made, the hormone is stored in the thyroid gland in combination with a protein. This protein-hormone complex is called thyroglobulin. The hormone is released into the blood by breaking the bonds between thyroxin and the protein. The...

Section Ix Disorders And Diseases Of The Digestive Tract 121 Introduction

There are several common disorders of the digestive system. Many of these disorders can be treated by drugs that you will dispense in the pharmacy. a. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay). Dental caries is a weakening or decay of the enamel coating of teeth. If allowed to progress unchecked, eventual destruction of the entire tooth (including the root and pulp) can result. Destruction of the root necessitates extraction. b. Mumps. Mumps are a typical childhood disease in which the salivary glands...

Adverse Effects Associated With Glucocorticoid Therapy

As with any medication, patients taking glucocorticoids should anticipate certain adverse effects. The likelihood of such adverse effects correlates with the dose of the drug and the duration of therapy, the age and condition of the patient, and the underlying disease. This paragraph will focus on the common adverse effects associated with glucocorticoid therapy. a. Peptic Ulceration. The glucocorticoids are said to produce peptic ulceration by interfering with tissue repair, decreasing the...

The Cathartic Laxative Habit

The physician seldom has the opportunity to prescribe cathartics, except in the hospital setting, since valid indications for the use of laxatives are limited. More commonly, the physician is faced with the problem of chronic misuse of these agents by his patients. The task the physician faces is a difficult one the patient must be helped to break the cathartic habit. The cathartic habit is the extensive, chronic misuse of self-prescribed cathartics by a bowel-conscious person. Cathartics are...

Types Of Insulin

The various types of insulin you will encounter in your pharmacy are listed and discussed below a. Insulin Injection (Regular Insulin, Crystalline Zinc Insulin). Insulin injections may be given subcutaneously in the treatment of diabetic hyperglycemia and intravenously in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. This product is available in the 40 and 100 unit strengths in a mixture of beef and pork insulin. The 100 unit strength is available as either beef or pork source. The onset of action of...

Thyroid Preparations

You will see a variety of thyroid preparations in the pharmacy. Some of the medications you may dispense are discussed below. a. Thyroid, USP. Thyroid, USP, is prepared from the thyroid glands of domesticated animals. Once the thyroid gland is obtained from the slaughtered animal, the gland is cleaned, dried, and powdered. Thyroid, USP, contains both the T3 and T4 hormone. This preparation is used in the treatment of hypo-thyroidism. The dosage of this product must be tailored to meet the needs...

Reproductive Hormones

There are three main categories of reproductive hormones, estrogens, progestins, and androgens. a. Estrogens. In females, estrogens are secreted by the developing ovarian follicle and by the corpus luteum (see Lesson 6, para 6-11b). During pregnancy, the placenta secretes estrogens. Estrogens are responsible for the development of the uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogen also produces such physiological effects as accelerating growth at puberty (causes epiphyses of long bones...

Disorders Of The Intestines

Sprue, or malabsorption of nutrients from the small intestine, can be very serious. It usually involves impaired absorption of fats and vitamins that leads to vitamin deficiency and anemia (inadequate red blood cell count). Treatment of sprue usually consist s of a high carbohydrate, low protein, low fat diet with vitamin supplements. Emergency replenishment of vital nutrients, if necessary, can be accomplished by intravenous injection. b. Diarrhea. Diarrhea is the frequent excretion...

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high levels of glucose In the blood) and glycosuria (glucose in the urine) resulting from inadequate production or use of insulin. b. Significance. Over 10 million persons in the United States have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus affects both young and old alike. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have helped prolong the life of persons who have diabetes mellitus. However, persons who have diabetes mellitus,...

Methods Of Contraception

Immediately below, some methods of contraception are discussed. You are probably familiar with most of these methods. a. Abstinence. Abstinence, in this sense, means that one refrains from engaging in sexual intercourse. Theoretically, this means that abstinence is 100 percent effective in preventing pregnancy. However, intercourse does not have to occur in order for fertilization of the egg to occur. If sperm are deposited in one way or another in or around the vagina, it is possible that...

Continue with Exercises

INSTRUCTIONS The following exercises are to be answered by marking the lettered response that best answers the question or best completes the incomplete statement or by writing the answer in the space provided. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to Solutions to Exercises at the end of the lesson and check your answers. 1. The human digestive system is best defined as a. A group of organs intended to provide energy to the body. b. A group of organs designed to take in, process, and...

The Glucocorticoids Hydrocortisone Cortisol And Others

As stated previously, the glucocorticoids affect the metabolism of fat, glucose, and protein in the body. The principal glucocorticoid is hydrocortisone (cortisol). a. Physiological, Actions of the Glucocorticoids. The glucocorticoids regulate blood brain glucose levels. They also inhibit the inflammatory process. The glucocorticoids also decrease the immunological responses of the body by decreasing antibody formation. About 90 percent of the glucocorticoids produced is hydrocortisone...

CErgotamine Tartrate with Caffeine and Pentobarbital Cafergot PB

This product is used in the treatment of migraine headaches. The pentobarbital is added for its sedative effect. The product is supplied in both tablet and suppository dosage forms. The usual dose of the tablet form is two tablets at the onset of a migraine headache and one tablet every one-half hour. The maximum number of tablets which can be taken per day is 6, per week is 10, and per month is 30. The dosage of the suppository form is one suppository at the onset of a migraine headache and...

Mechanisms Of Action Of Cathartics

Each category of cathartics has its own particular mechanism of action. The mechanisms of action are important because the physician may select a particular agent because of the specific favorable results obtained as a direct effect of a mechanism of action. a. Bulk-Forming Cathartics. These cathartics absorb water and provide bulk for the gastrointestinal tract. The increased bulk provides stimulation to the bowels (peristalsis). b. Lubricant Cathartics. Lubricant cathartics increase the fluid...

Clinical Indications For Glucocorticoids

The glucocorticoids have specific indications for use in the treatment of certain conditions. These indications are discussed below a. Replacement Therapy. The glucocorticoids are used in replacement therapy for several conditions. These include (1) Chronic adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease). Addison's disease may develop as a result of adrenal surgery or due to destructive lesions of the adrenal cortex. The replacement therapy associated with this condition requires approximately 20 to...

Nutrient Solutions Hyperalimentation Products

These products provide total parenteral nutrition for those patients who cannot, should not, or will not ingest the nutrients they need to live. It should be noted that a hyperalimentation can supply all the patient's nutritional needs by administration through the circulatory system. However, these solutions are quite expensive and, because of their nutrient content, are highly susceptible to bacterial growth. Most of the solutions contain high concentrations of carbohydrates e.g., dextrose ....